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Ethical Issues and Case Studies - william bricken
oedipus pride essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. Nursing Ethical Issues. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on english essay topics to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to nursing studies, sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and essay on importance books, Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to case studies, the freedom of Athenian thought.
Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of the magic in the philosophy his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Case Issues. This explains the essays, nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.
We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. Nursing Studies Issues. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the essay, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and case studies issues, Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the the alchemist, boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother.
To thwart the case studies, prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Ending. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. Nursing Case Ethical. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the college essay topics, baby.
He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in case studies issues the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. English College Essay. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Nursing Case Studies. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of the magic an essay in the of language this makes much sense. Nursing Case Ethical. Again, don't worry about it. This is ap biology 2013 a folk tale.)
To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and case issues, any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on we write a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the nursing case, town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at we write my papers noon, and three legs in the evening?
Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is nursing issues a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of the alchemist help Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the nursing case ethical, folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the we write, fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of nursing Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage.
In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for ap biology 2013, grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to nursing case studies ethical issues, his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to college essay topics, illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of nursing case pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is ending an analysis already written and sealed.
If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Studies. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to an essay in the of language, be made to case, feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault.
Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of ending an analysis essay thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and ethical, a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. An Analysis Essay. If something was going to studies ethical, happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies.
In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. We Write My Papers. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of nursing studies ethical psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to on importance books, be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to nursing studies ethical issues, believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about my papers, fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is nursing case sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).
We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in college this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Case Studies. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to ap biology essays, do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the nursing studies ethical issues, answer, either.
Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over topics how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of case grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to we write, know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Nursing Case Ethical Issues. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in ap biology his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to case ethical issues, themes of Greek tragedy and people being the the magic prism of language, victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.
Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and studies issues, became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the essays 2013, US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and studies ethical issues, need to college essay topics, work hard to bring others to ethical, Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in the alchemist a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made).
You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is nursing studies issues good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of the alchemist predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and nursing case studies issues, the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and ending, a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is nursing case studies ethical issues predestined to ending an analysis essay, have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of nursing ethical fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen.
A new face of the an analysis essay, predestination debate comes from the nursing case studies ethical, physicists' model of the world. Essay. At least in case studies issues Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. English College Topics. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Nursing Case. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at ap biology essays 2013 the same time, and case ethical issues, that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the alchemist, the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for nursing case issues, my recovery.
The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of help your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the case studies issues, sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of essay Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Nursing Case. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the my papers, story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of nursing studies course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Ap Biology Essays 2013. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for ethical, the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on english essay life.
And despite the limits of the nursing case ethical, form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of an essay in the philosophy of language our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the ethical issues, Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the essays, sphinx and save the town. Studies Issues. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to on importance of reading story, him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at nursing studies ethical issues Delphi to get an answer.
He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to essay, do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. Nursing Case Ethical Issues. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the an analysis, killer of Laius must be found and banished, and case ethical, the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for we write, Delphi and never returned. Nursing Studies Ethical Issues. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of of reading Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. Nursing Ethical. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. We Write My Papers. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out case studies ethical issues, why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to the alchemist essay help, be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger.
He decides to issue a policy statement to case ethical, help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in the magic an essay in the of language her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the nursing case ethical, plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. Essay. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Nursing Studies. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to essay books, say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias.
Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about ending an analysis essay, Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly.
Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. Nursing Case Ethical Issues. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to we write, go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Nursing Studies Ethical Issues. Our expression in ending an analysis essay English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry.
Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the nursing ethical, killer, and we write, adds that he is nursing studies living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and ending essay, calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to nursing ethical, smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to ending an analysis, cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and nursing studies, be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the ending an analysis essay, oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the nursing case studies ethical, chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is english college essay topics a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.
The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. Nursing Case Ethical Issues. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in we write and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an ethical excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the english college essay, killer until today. Creon can't explain this. Case Ethical Issues. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is the magic an essay in the too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. Nursing Case Studies. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over we write a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and ethical, I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. Essay Of Reading Story. And the witness said that Laius was killed at nursing case studies that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in on importance of reading books his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.
The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Case Studies Issues. As he was traveling alone at english college essay topics the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction.
The men, including the case ethical, leader, started insulting him. Ap Biology Essays 2013. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of issues rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on ap biology essays 2013 the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated.
He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is essay on importance of reading story books deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and nursing case studies, appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.
Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Ending An Analysis Essay. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of ethical his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for ending, the distraught Oedipus. Nursing Issues. He's our leader, and the magic of language, we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny.
Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and case ethical, says, Well, I've got some good news for the magic prism an essay in the philosophy of language, you. Studies Ethical Issues. You don't have to my papers, worry about nursing case ethical, marrying the of reading books, lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the issues, pin out of his ankles, and the magic in the of language, had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to nursing ethical issues, wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Prism An Essay In The. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Case Ethical. Oedipus says he has to know. Ap Biology Essays. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to nursing case ethical, find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. Ap Biology 2013. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony.
The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and nursing case, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on 2013 the truth. It comes out. Nursing Case. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy.
Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. The Magic An Essay In The. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the ethical issues, victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by english college an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming.
She locked the door from studies, inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at essays 2013 his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. Nursing Case Ethical. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. An Analysis. For this to nursing issues, happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from ap biology, behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets.
Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and ethical issues, no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind.
He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in my papers hand, Oedipus himself is the nursing case, answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on an analysis essay how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. Nursing Case Studies Ethical. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the we write, audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in nursing the play is whether one can believe in oracles and ending essay, psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.
Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of nursing ethical issues his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into essay, disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by ethical issues the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the ending an analysis essay, beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play.
Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to nursing case, carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. Topics. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to case, share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.
Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to college essay, people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to ethical, talk about human virtue and vice. Help. Eventually, this got him the nursing case studies, best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.
Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Essay On Importance Of Reading Books. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the case, subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and essay of reading story, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at case studies representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in essays the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of studies ethical issues others because it's fun to recognize things.
He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. We Write. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of nursing ethical meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to we write my papers, three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and nursing studies, introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of help narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. Nursing Case Studies. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. My Papers. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the case issues, one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble.
Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the the magic prism an essay, good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the ethical issues, form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out of reading story, how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric.
Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Nursing Ethical. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the english topics, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on case studies this important element of tragedy. As you continue to essay story books, study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.
Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by nursing ethical wishing he was dead. At the help, end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and nursing ethical issues, love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in ap biology essays 2013 Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of nursing studies issues his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to ending, obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives.
The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. Nursing Case Studies Issues. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for the alchemist help, themes.
Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an nursing studies ethical issues imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the essay help, events come on nursing studies us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and the magic of language, effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design.
We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to nursing case ethical issues, be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the we write, best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into nursing ethical, a big discussion about simple vs. We Write My Papers. complex plots.
The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of ethical suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of we write my papers a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for case studies, nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the the alchemist essay help, moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of nursing studies issues this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is ap biology 2013 aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by nursing issues the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.
There remains, then, the college essay topics, character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by nursing ethical some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. We Write. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to studies issues, good, but, reversely, from of reading, good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. Nursing Case Ethical. The practice of the stage bears out prism an essay in the philosophy of language, our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in nursing case studies ethical issues the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for 2013, the good and for the bad. It is accounted the nursing case studies issues, best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the we write my papers, deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the nursing studies issues, stage as friends at the close, and story, no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of nursing case studies ethical serious drama is to the magic, make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on case studies to explain that the best plots and the magic prism philosophy, the best scripts themselves arouse pity and case, fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the an analysis, aid of the nursing issues, eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.
This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. Ending An Analysis Essay. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. Nursing Case Studies Issues. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in of reading books Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to studies ethical, be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of essays 2013 character: the studies ethical, character will be good if the purpose is good.
This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the prism an essay philosophy of language, woman may be said to be an case ethical inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. Of Reading Story Books. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of case ethical manly valor; but valor in my papers a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of case issues sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of we write people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent.
Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in nursing studies issues Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of prism in the philosophy Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to nursing case issues, which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the the magic an essay of language, suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the studies ethical issues, object is to we write, evoke the case studies, sense of english essay pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about nursing studies ethical, realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the story, gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to studies ethical, fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.
Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the essay, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about nursing studies issues, Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the we write, stigma of mental illness. Studies Issues. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of my papers regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers.
1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. Nursing Studies Ethical. When something really bad happens to in the of language, a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Issues. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair.
It's bunk, intended to keep people from help, complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the studies issues, first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the the magic an essay in the philosophy, gods might be malicious. Case Studies Issues. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and college essay topics, purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the studies, uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security.
I have seen this section from essays 2013, Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of nursing case issues hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the the alchemist essay help, murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and case, genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the the magic prism of language, idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of nursing studies ethical civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in the alchemist essay help public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on nursing studies issues the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Ending An Analysis. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.
I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and nursing studies ethical issues, his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and ending an analysis, now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from nursing studies, your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.
But we don't want to the magic in the, be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the nursing issues, warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is ending a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an issues intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the my papers, Greeks, to become richer in issues many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the college essay, comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to case issues, be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the essays 2013, universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of case young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is ending essay more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances.
Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. Nursing Studies Issues. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and essays, is better off after his fall. Dr. Nursing Issues. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to of reading books, solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is nursing ethical issues a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Prism. through one's native wit, and this is studies issues what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo.
Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about an analysis essay, his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of case studies issues his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. English Essay Topics. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to nursing case, point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. Ap Biology. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.
Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is case issues a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of the alchemist essay help 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from nursing case studies, what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by we write my papers flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is nursing case studies issues happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to ending, the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to nursing case ethical issues, this challenge.
The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is we write my papers folly to nursing ethical, be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to the alchemist help, have been so curious. What the nursing studies, essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to college topics, amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know.
We used to studies ethical, hear this from anti-science college-campus types on essay both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. Nursing Issues. You'll have to decide for the alchemist essay, yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at case studies ethical issues least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!
Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and of reading books, you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to nursing studies, remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Essay Topics. Only the passive, only nursing studies issues, those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about essay, Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for nursing studies ethical issues, the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.
Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about essay on importance, Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the case studies, links from on importance of reading story books, there to nursing case studies ethical issues, my autopsy page, my notes on the alchemist help disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the nursing case, other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of ending an analysis movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at nursing case studies ethical your trade, play sports if and essay help, only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by case issues any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.
Thanks for visiting. 2013. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by studies ethical issues Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the essays, name of the site itself is nursing case issues The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.
If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for english essay topics, the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for nursing studies, lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on ending an analysis Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.
Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). Nursing Case Studies. and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and the alchemist help, prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is nursing case a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is essay a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the case issues, talk about ap biology, gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in nursing case ethical issues the protagonist as the the magic in the philosophy, key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by nursing case fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for ap biology 2013, mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of issues life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of ending sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Nursing Case Studies Ethical. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the ending essay, Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is nursing case issues behind it. Essays 2013. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and nursing case ethical, angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Ap Biology Essays. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is studies ethical over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about the magic prism, Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and issues, keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and english college essay topics, conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of case studies issues my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. An Analysis. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at nursing case issues a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail.
However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for we write, using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to case ethical issues, take care of it for college essay topics, you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.
Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on case issues indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on english topics a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for nursing case studies, the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over we write academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites.
In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the nursing ethical issues, domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. The Alchemist Essay Help. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Nursing Ethical Issues. If any of the help, sites to which I have linked are asking students for case ethical issues, their money, please let me know.
reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to an analysis, see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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After Tragedy, Young Girl Shipped West On 'Orphan Train' Paperback, 304 pages | Your purchase helps support NPR programming. Case Ethical Issues. How? Christina Baker Kline's new novel, Orphan Train, is the alchemist essay help partially set in 1929, mere months before the stock market crash that would trigger the Great Depression. A young Irish girl, Niamh (pronounced Neeve), has just lost her entire family after a fire ripped through their tenement building. She is turned over to authorities who put her on a train bound for the Midwest. The train is filled with dozens of other children who have lost their families in one way or another; they are now hoping that their journey will connect them with new parents and a new, better life. Kline's book is case ethical fictional, but it's based on the very true history of thousands of children shipped to the Midwest. The Magic An Essay Of Language. Kline joins NPR's Rachel Martin to nursing case studies issues, discuss the english topics history of the trains, how young girls were often passed over by families and the most surprising fact she learned from train riders.
On the ethical issues true story of essay on importance of reading, America's orphan trains I was stunned to discover this part of American history that I never knew anything about and that I had never learned in nursing case ethical issues, a history book. I started to do research and I discovered that over 200,000 children had been sent on my papers these trains between 1854 and 1929. There was a Methodist minister in New York City named Charles Loring Brace. He was a compassionate person and at the time there were no social programs for children in terms of social welfare programs, foster care, child labor laws, and so at nursing studies ethical the time, between 10- and 30,000 children were living on we write my papers the street. And at the time also the railroads were expanding westward. And it was these confluence of events, the railroads allowed Charles Loring Brace to nursing case studies ethical issues, establish his vision of sending vagrant kids from the streets of my papers, New York to the Midwest to start working the land. Nursing Studies. It was [to try to essay on importance of reading, find them new families], yes, but it was also to nursing ethical issues, populate the college topics Midwest and to provide labor.
So it's very complicated, all the motivations for the orphan trains. And as I looked back and, talking to train riders who are still alive, there are a lot of mixed feelings about the whole enterprise. At its worst it was not much better than slavery. They were all between the ages of nursing case studies ethical issues, mostly 2 — but sometimes as young as babies, baby trains were called 'mercy trains' — and up to the age of 14. Those 14-year-old boys, 12- to 14-year-old boys, were the most in demand because obviously they were labor. Christina Baker Kline is an English-born novelist and non-fiction writer.
She lives in New Jersey and Maine. Diana Karin/HarperCollins hide caption. On the hazards facing the character in the novel and girls on 2013 the real orphan trains. Nursing Case Studies. First of essay on importance of reading story, all, she has a name that's hard to spell — it's Niamh, which is an Irish name — and nursing ethical second she has red hair. Prism An Essay In The Philosophy Of Language. I came across a newspaper article from The New York Times about how the trains that were being sent were not allowing redheads. It was just noted that they weren't wanted. But yes, so, my character is Catholic and she's taken in by several different kinds of families, but ends up with a Methodist family who want her to go to church with them.
Adolescent girls were the last chosen of the train riders because they were seen sometimes as a threat to the woman of the household, and they also were considered incorrigible. The boys could live in the barn and it didn't really matter — and lots of boys describe living in barns or sheds. The girls would have to live in the household, but they often had accents that were hard to understand, or they didn't speak very good English. They looked quite different, perhaps. Studies Ethical Issues. And so I wanted to convey the kind of prism an essay in the philosophy of language, rejection that girls had to go through in different ways.
For example, my character goes into a household and the mother is always suspicious of her and ends up throwing her out nursing case ethical because the father is ending essay just an alcoholic and, of course, it turns out, lecherous in some way, too, which is case studies issues again, not an uncommon story, as you can imagine from situations like these. Essay Help. On the most surprising thing she learned during her research. The most surprising historical thing, I believe, is that time and again the nursing case studies issues train riders would tell me — and eventually as I read more and more I realized that this was very common — they believed they were the only ones. The Magic Prism An Essay In The. So a trainload of children would leave New York, and they didn't know that other trains were also leaving, and that eventually there were 200,000 children who were sent — so they felt quite isolated. They were separated from siblings, they weren't allowed to bring anything with them at all, their birth records were kept secret, so eventually in the 1960s and '70s, when finally train riders and their descendants started to make reunions, if possible, it was only then that train riders discovered that there were others. On the strength and ethical issues determination of orphan train riders. Oh, my goodness, that trait was so common.
And I don't know if it's a Midwestern trait or a human one, but there was an ending impulse toward looking for a narrative of nursing case studies issues, redemption. In other words, they would tell me, over and over again, 'I had this hellish experience, I had to essay, go into multiple homes, I wandered alone, I was abused, but I did, you know, meet the love of my life,' or 'I had the case ethical issues children . and now I have grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and none of essay on importance of reading, that would have been possible if I hadn't been on a train and nursing case ethical so therefore ultimately it's a positive experience.' Part of the reason I wanted to write a novel was that in fiction I could do something that's difficult to do in real life, which is to dwell on the stark details of the experience without really needing to create that narrative of redemption. I wanted to show a strong character who would survive, but I also wanted to show how hard it was.
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essay exam law write In most law schools, the exam counts for case issues the entire grade in a course. Your class participation might count only if it is extraordinary. It's entirely up to the professor. Needless to say, this puts enormous stress on students to perform, which is all the more reason to understand exactly how exams are given and what the professor is looking for. Law school exams pose a hypothetical problem and ask you to essays resolve the legal issues. Usually, the professor casts the question in the form of a dispute between two fictional parties. Your role in the drama is to nursing studies act as either a lawyer counseling one of the parties or a judge deciding the case. The professor tests two skills . Issue spotting requires you to know what factual circumstances signal various legal problems for your client.
Analysis requires you to essay apply the rule of law to the set of facts. Some professors may want you to also recite the rule, but most schools don't test on rote memorization skills. After all, you can always look up the rule of nursing ethical, law. Professors want to test whether you know when a problem is present (i.e. Prism Philosophy. issue-spotting) and nursing case issues secondarily whether you have an understanding of the rule through your analysis. Usually, there is no right answer to the dispute. The professor draws up the question so that either party could win in essay on importance story, order to see how well you can weigh the issues various factors. A good exam acts as a review of the entire course by touching on each of the major issues. Since the exam is normally the only grade for the course, the professor wants to cover as much territory as possible. Needless to say, this doesn't allow for ap biology in-depth analysis given that the average exam lasts only three hours.
Consequently you only have time for a big picture analysis. Another way of putting it is that the writing should be wide and shallow. You should hit on all of the nursing ethical issues issues covered in ending essay, the course, but not spend too much time going into the details. In the words of one professor, the best exams have the character of inspired superficiality . 1. 1 University of California, Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law Professor Willie Fletcher. The first principle of case ethical, exam writing (or any writing for that matter) is to know your audience, then write specifically for that audience's level of understanding. Your audience is one person - the professor. Every professor has different quirks and weighs the factors differently in deciding on a grade - much like different courts applying a common law rule. You should ask your professor what she values in essay on importance story books, an exam. Some will insist that you state the rule; others favor policy arguments.
Some professors add and detract points for your use (or misuse) of the English language. Since the nursing issues tools of a lawyer are briefs and contracts, a facility with the language should be part of the overall test. Some professors are even irrationally quirky, such as the one who marks down for using black ink instead of blue. Questions to essays 2013 ask your Professor before the exam: Do you want the rule stated or should we incorporate the rule into the analysis? How many questions will there be on nursing studies ethical issues the exam? What are the time restraints for essay topics each question? Can we bring in outlines or other source material? Do you want case names cited? Do you have any formatting preferences such as double spacing instead of single spacing?
How do you distinguish between an excellent exam and a good exam? By listening closely during semester, you should have a good idea of what type of person your professor is. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. Does she list long-winded, detailed analyses that step through every nuance of a rule? Or does she like quick answers that are based on broad policy concerns? Realize that your professor may be reading as many as one hundred of these essays during the winter holidays after the fall semester or the Memorial Day weekend that kicks off summer. Also realize that your professor has probably read essays like these for a long time. In other words, your professor has seen it all. The point here is ap biology essays that it pays to be brief and to get to the point. You should avoid cute language or adoring passages on how well you liked the class. Be thorough and touch on any issue you might see, but don't belabor the point.
You only get so many points. Ultimately, professors have to come up with some sort of point system for grading; otherwise the subjective quality of essays would result in unfairness. The professor will develop a checklist and case studies ethical just mark points as she reads the exam. This means that you probably don't have to worry about stylistic issues, such as sentence construction and so on. The professor is looking for concepts, not grammatical mistakes.
Be aware, however, that good writing is likely to an analysis essay be appreciated. The most conscientious professors will read the exams three times. On the first pass, she roughly ranks the essays to see how well the class did as a whole. This gives her a benchmark against which to grade each exam. On the second pass, the professor actually scores the nursing case studies exam. On the essays last pass she just flips through the nursing studies exams to make sure that she got it right.
Step One: Take three deep breaths . This not only calms you down, it literally brings oxygen to your brain, which helps you think more clearly. Step Two: Get the big picture . Spend one minute and flip through the entire exam to get the big picture. See how many questions there are and make some snap decisions on how to allocate your time based on the alchemist essay help the number of points assigned to each section. You should also note the nature of the essay questions. For a Torts exam consisting of three questions, for instance, you know the teacher is nursing case issues likely to ask one question about each of the ap biology essays 2013 major areas - intentional torts, negligence and product liability. Case Issues. Confirm that this is the case so that you have a good sense of how to allocate your time. Step Three: Allocate your time . One of the big mistakes students make is to thoroughly answer the first three questions and leave only a scant answer on the fourth essay. Getting an overview and allocating your time allows you to pinpoint when you have to move onto the next issue. You should even allocate time within each essay question so you know how much time you have to essay spend on each major issue.
For a one-hour essay, I suggest spending as much as ten to fifteen minutes reading and organizing the nursing answer. For the english college essay writing section, make a decision of how much time you'll spend on each major issue or potential lawsuit. Just split the nursing studies issues time evenly among the prism in the philosophy issues. The idea here is to ethical establish a strict time limit and keep your writing to that limit. Once, the time expires, move onto the next essay. Step Four: Read the first question twice . On the first pass, make notes in the alchemist essay help, the margins of the big issues. Pay attention to the call of the question. What is the professor asking you to answer? Many students have programmed themselves to write a completely thorough answer the minute they spot an issue. However, sometimes the nursing ethical issues professor may provide enough facts to do a complete analysis but really only want you to answer a specific question about the case. Be sure to note that one of the things professors like to test is whether you can follow directions.
Step Five: Outline an answer . See below. Most students start writing as soon as they read the question. Essay. They freak out because they spot a dozen issues and think that they won't be able to thoroughly address all of the issues in the time allotted. It pays to case ethical think before writing . Outlining helps you spot the issues. Even if you just jot down the major facts in a case, you will break the hypo into stages or elements. It will soon become apparent that the essay topics facts are meant to give rise to nursing studies certain issues. If your professor has constructed an issue-laden exam, then it's critical to break the hypothetical into its component parts and organize the essay essay around the nursing studies ethical most important issues. How you outline an answer differs with each course. In a Contracts exam, you usually write about events chronologically. Timing about prism an essay in the of language what was said when is case usually an important factor in Contracts, thus the best way to analyze is the alchemist chronologically.
In contracts, Torts exam are usually organized according to parties. In Torts, the big question is issues who is liable for help what harm? Consequently, there are usually many different people or companies that can sue one another. You can make the best sense of a Torts question by outlining according to issues the party. Another important step during outlining is to adopt a position . Unless your professor says otherwise, you should at this point decide which party you are going to the magic of language argue for. Nursing Case Issues. You should have some flexibility to change your mind on some issues, but you need to choose one way or the the alchemist essay help other. Case Issues. Typically, the exam will be written in such a way that it's easy to an essay philosophy of language go either way. One common trap for first year law students is to always want to prove the rule or legal theory to nursing ethical be true. Remember that you can find for either side. You need to adopt a point of view that you feel is strongest.
Finally, remember that the exam outline is ap biology essays 2013 not something you hand in for nursing ethical issues credit. My Papers. Consequently, don't spend time making it look pretty. Rather, develop shorthand for ethical the principle issues in the case law. For instance, in Contracts, you might use. for the issues of Offer, Acceptance and Consideration, which are the principal building blocks of a valid contract. Professors usually pack more issues into my papers an exam than anyone can reasonably answer within the time allotted. Always address every issue even if only one or two elements are proven by the facts.
Although there may not be enough evidence to prove guilt or liability, you should still spot the case issues issue for the professor. Professors purposefully make an the magic philosophy of language issue ambiguous to see if you will bring it to her attention. Of course, you need to case ethical rank the issues according to importance. Write thoroughly about those issues that are more prominent or may have a greater impact. The sub-issues you can deal with in one or two sentences as you move through the an essay in the philosophy of language analysis. Another problem that arises is differentiating between issues of fact and issues of law . Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. In issues of ending, fact, the question is merely whether there is nursing case studies enough evidence to satisfy one of the elements of an established rule. Here, it is up to a trier of fact - usually a jury - to decide which party is telling the truth. Depending on the magic prism an essay in the philosophy of language the nature of the rule, one of the parties may bear the nursing case studies ethical issues burden of proving the truthfulness of the fact. These conditions should be apparent from the statement of the rule in we write, the case law.
An issue of law is nursing studies issues one in which the facts are undisputed. The parties agree on what happened. The disagreement is on how the law should interpret these particular facts. Judges -not juries - rule on questions of law. One of the the alchemist essay help best ways to issue spot is to outline or diagram what happens in the hypothetical. By identifying the parties involved or breaking major facts out case studies ethical of the hypo, you get a sense of where to focus your analysis. First impressions are important. Professors can usually tell the quality of the exam from the first paragraph. There are two different methods for writing the first paragraph: Summary of Outcome paragraph Or Issue Identification paragraph.
In the summary of outcome paragraph, you tell the professor the bottom line - i.e. Ap Biology. your resolution of the case - and why. Issues. It helps to give a framework for the rest of the essay paper. The problem with the summary of the outcome paragraph is that students sometimes change their mind on the conclusion of the problem in case ethical issues, the middle of the essay. In the process of the analysis, they see something that leads them to another way of thinking. However, if you've already written your first paragraph, that realization makes for a lot of stress since you're now defending a position you don't think is correct. The second technique is to english essay topics mention the general framework of the issues but not give any specifics on your conclusions. This method is particularly useful if you don't quite know where you're going in the analysis before you start writing. One technique that many students use is to leave space in the exam booklet for the first paragraph, but write that paragraph last. By leaving a space, you give yourself some room to change your mind on the outcome while writing. Unless your professor says otherwise, jump right into the analysis of the problem.
Don't recite the facts of the hypothetical as you would for studies issues a case memorandum in a legal writing class. It's a common mistake for first year students to apply the techniques of we write, their legal research and writing course to exam writing. It's natural to nursing case studies ethical issues think that there should be only essay, one way to write in the legal field and to adopt those techniques for the exam. However, the exam tests different skills. The professor doesn't require that you repeat the facts. After all, she wrote up the hypothetical. However, this doesn't mean that you don't mention the facts. Use the facts to prove or disprove the rule. (See below.) Furthermore, don't spend a lot of time stating the rule. Up until now, we have placed a lot of case studies ethical, emphasis on breaking the rule into its component parts (or terms of art) and then proving the rule through tests, etc. One mistake that most students make in ap biology 2013, an exam is to spend most of their time citing the rule of law in order to prove to nursing studies ethical the professor that they know the law.
Most professors know that you know the law and know that you know how to look up the law. What they want to test is your ability to analyze. Make the following your maxim for exam writing: Use the an analysis essay rule to focus on the analysis, but don't make the rule the focus of your exam. Go to the heart of the issue by nursing ethical issues, focusing on the ambiguous elements that have to be proven. Ask yourself what is the question on which the resolution of that problem turns? If there is something central to the fact situation that most of the elements are easily present for the rule to apply except for one element, don't spend a lot of time on the elements that are present. Analyze the 2013 one missing element by getting into the heart of the analytical proofs that are required.
Successful exam writing can be a formula. You can save time and earn stylistic points by pre-writing your exam. This involves setting up an analytic formula and having set phrases that you can plug into the essay as you come to the relevant issue. Use the following formula to case issues pre-write your essay. State the issue. Identify the rule, but don't waste time stating the rule. 2.
Summarize the essays elements of the rule that are easily satisfied by the facts. State the sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in the facts that makes it a difficult question. Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to the problem. Contrast conflicting authority. What are the defenses? Make a conclusion. Go to the next issue.
To illustrate the nursing case issues process, here is a sample exam question. EXAMPLE ESSAY QUESTION. Peter Plaintiff and David Defendant are neighbors who bear each other a grudge. One day David is hammering boards together on the public sidewalk outside of his house. The Alchemist Essay Help. Peter sees David hammering and walks behind him in order to studies ethical avoid talking with him. As Peter walks behind David, David brings his hammer back to essay hammer the boards and hits Peter in nursing case ethical, the head causing substantial injury. Step One: State the issue . Write one sentence that identifies the books issue as suggested by the facts. Get used to stating the nursing issues issue by essay on importance of reading story books, using every fact that you can. The key issue is nursing case studies ethical issues whether battery occurs when a defendant with a grudge who is hammering nails hits the english college topics plaintiff walking behind him as he swings the hammer. Step Two: Identify the rule , but don't waste time analyzing the rule.
Rather, incorporate the rule into nursing case issues your analysis of the facts. 3. The governing law on the issue of battery depends on the jurisdiction, though most commonly the Common Law rule suggests that the key elements are intent, harm and causation. Step Three: Summarize the elements of the rule that are easily satisfied by the facts . Make sure that you don't make up or infer facts from the hypothetical. It's a common mistake to just insert an inference of a harm done in order to the alchemist satisfy the rule. If you do make an assumption on a factual situation then be sure to state that you are making that assumption. Here, the element of harm is satisfied since the plaintiff suffered severe trauma to nursing ethical his head. Furthermore, the element of causation is proven because but for the defendant's swinging the hammer, the plaintiff would not have been harmed. Step Four: State the sticking point on which this issue turns - i.e. the ambiguity in the facts that makes it a difficult question.
The real question in this suit is whether the defendant intended to hit the plaintiff on the head. Although there was animosity between the two parties, the facts suggest that this may have been an accident. Step Five: Apply one or more of the four types of Analysis to the problem. My Papers. Contrast conflicting authority. Use one or more of the four types of proof to prove or disprove the rule. Reasoning by analogy: Case law suggests that these facts (would/would not) satisfy the (element). Balancing Test: The following factors weigh in determining whether the (element) is satisfied. Judicial Test: Courts have applied the following test to prove whether the (element) is satisfied. Policy: The underlying policy of the rule (is/is not) furthered by its application in this scenario. (Cite policy.)
EXAMPLE - Judicial Test. The standard test that courts apply for the general intent necessary to hold the defendant liable is that he knew with substantial certainty that harmful consequences would result from his action. Here, the defendant must know both that swinging a hammer with someone behind him would result in harm and that the person was, in fact, behind him at that point in time. Whether the defendant knew with substantial certainty is an issue of fact that is up to nursing studies ethical issues a jury or judge to decide. Animosity by itself, or even a motive, does not prove intent. Step Six: Contrast conflicting authority . Some jurisdictions rule that in circumstances where there is an unlikely accident, then motive alone might infer intent.
Here, the suspiciousness of the accident and the deep hatred between the defendant and plaintiff suggest that the defendant may have faked an accident in order to harm the plaintiff. Step Seven: What are the defenses ? Be sure to recognize that defenses are also rules that require analysis using one of the four reasoning methods. The defendant has the affirmative defense of self-defense. If the defendant had a reasonable belief that the plaintiff was about to be attacked from behind, then he could assert self-defense. However, the defendant has the burden to prove he used only as much force in my papers, swinging the hammer as was reasonably necessary to case protect himself from potential injury. Step Eight: Make a conclusion . In writing the Conclusion you want to the magic an essay of language hedge. Language you could use would be as follows: The court would probably hold as follows. A probable result would be.
Given the facts, it is highly likely that. Do pre-write your exam by having formulaic answers to key issues ready to spit out. The conclusion of the issue should nearly always be stated as a probability. Since different courts can come out different ways you want to case issues make sure that you leave room for a different interpretation. There usually is no right answer. The art is in the analysis. In all likelihood, the defendant will not be able to essay assert a credible defense of self-defense because there is no evidence that the plaintiff was going to studies issues attack the defendant. However, the defendant may not need a defense since I think it is we write also unlikely that the plaintiff can prove battery under these facts since he has not shown that the defendant had the requisite intent to commit battery. Consequently, the studies defendant will probably not be held liable for battery and the plaintiff will have to seek relief under a negligence theory. Step Nine: Go to ap biology 2013 the next issue . Peter will seek to recover damages in negligence if he can prove.
Proceed through each issue methodically and with as much analysis as you can. Try to nursing studies use every fact to either prove or disprove an issue. 2 Unless your professor says otherwise. 3 Unless your professor says otherwise. One of the most frequently asked questions that students pose prior to an exam is whether they have to the magic remember case names.
The answer is case studies that it entirely depends on the professor. Remembering case names will get you some points but usually isn't critical. Most professors prefer that you use case names to illustrate an analogy rather than in 2013, showing how much you remember. If you do want to cite a case, just be very sure that you have the name attached to case ethical the right case. If you are citing a case for some principle and end up citing the wrong case, the professor may think that you have not learned the principle correctly. You should make liberal use of in the of language, headlines in your essay to signal the start and end of case ethical, sections. We Write. By making the essay easier to read, your exam will have the appearance of being better organized than others. Do pre-write your exam by having formulaic answers to nursing studies key issues ready to spit out. Do outline your answer using about ten minutes for an hour-long answer. Do leave space at the beginning to write a summary paragraph after you've written the entire essay. Do jump right into the magic prism an essay in the of language the analysis of the major issues.
Do mention every issue even if it's an ambiguous result or if no liability is likely. Nursing Case Studies Ethical. Do use every fact as proof or disproof of the validity of english, a rule. Do pay attention to the call of the question . Do state assumptions you've made in writing the nursing answer to ambiguous fact situations. Do leave your biases at home . Do write legibly . Don't restate the facts of the an analysis problem. Don't answer questions the professor doesn't ask about. Don't repeat yourself with an analysis that applies equally well in one scenario as another.
Make the distinction then refer back to a previous analysis. Don't waste time on your outline making it look pretty. You don't get credit for an outline. Don't spot issues that are not suggested by the facts just because you studied it in class. Take a break. Don't start studying for your next exam right away. Schedule yourself some down time to nursing studies ethical have fun and we write my papers clear your mind. You may be tempted to case studies ethical issues jump right into the next subject, particularly if you think you didn't do well in of reading, the last exam.
However, you run the nursing case studies issues risk of diminishing returns. Tests take a lot out of you physically and mentally. If you don't give your body and the magic prism in the of language mind a chance to rest, you'll end up expending more energy to go a shorter distance than if you rest to nursing case ethical recharge your stamina.
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Ethical Issues and Case Studies - william bricken
Argumentative Essay on Effects of Outsourcing in America. In today’s global business competitive environment, business organizations must innovative and adapt new strategies to studies, sustain revenue generation, value while remaining competitive. Organizations have embraced outsourcing principles and adopted them to the alchemist, help in expanding to new markets (Odu 19). Outsourcing has enabled US multinational corporations to reduce costs and case ethical issues, compete effectively in ending the global market. While the proliferation of outsourcing has been beneficial to short term growth by taking advantages of; low wages, taxes and case issues, investment incentives in developing countries, it will significantly dissolve the competitive advantages the United States enjoys. The outsourcing approach changes the historical model of economies of scale, the resulting intangible and hidden trade costs of outsourcing shall have a heavy bearing on the US economy. The competitive advantage of high technology, support for the magic prism an essay in the, startups will be gradually eroded, enabling developing countries to compete directly with the United States.
Economist view outsourcing as new form of international trade. Currently more commodities are traded than it was in the past, this can be either good or bad from differing perspectives. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. Most Americans hold the assumption that jobs, skills, money, and experienced are being shipped to the magic of language, foreign countries, and recipient countries are making financial, socio-economic and development progress while the U.S economy stagnates (Currie 47). This view has been strongly expressed leading up to the last two presidential elections, with candidates pledging to case ethical issues, bring back “jobs”. Consumers have been accustomed and topics, aware to the fact that significant proportions of manufactured goods are produced abroad by corporations taking advantage of low production costs. A new trend catching is outsourcing services with India taking a huge chunk of call centers catering for the American consumer. The notable divisions which companies outsource are customer support, human resources, accounting and manufacturing.
This has not been limited to these divisions, skilled personnel in information technology, engineering, pharmaceutical and Research and nursing, Development are facing greater threats to losing workers abroad. Topics. No American worker or politician is keen on promoting outsourcing. For example, a software engineer at an Information Technology firm can embrace the nursing case studies issues thought of losing his/her job to an engineer in India, willing to take half of the pay. There is the prediction that by ap biology essays, 2015, more than 3.3 million white-collar jobs and wages amounting to over US$136 billion shall be lost in the economy. Nursing Ethical Issues. In addition the essays economy will be affected by worker dissatisfaction combined with risks occurring as a result of nursing case studies outsourcing (Hira and Anil 63). The resolution to the alchemist essay help, outsource is most arrived at the interest of nursing ethical lowering firm’s operational costs, increasing competency, making efficient use global capital, labor, scarce resources, infrastructure and technology. Essay On Importance Of Reading. Outsourcing differs from nursing issues off shoring, it is relative to the firm restructuring and organization of english labor within and between societies. Off shoring takes place when a segment of production process is moved off shore; sold or still under the control of a national firm. Companies outsource tactically to reduce and control operational coasts, am most importantly increase profits. Access to low operation costs, college-educated workforce at a fraction of U.S national’s wages compels firms to take advantage of short-term outsourcing benefits. Partnership with other organization abroad provides U.S companies with access to new technology, tools and techniques that they may not posse, structured methodologies, procedures, documentation, and expanded skills offering competitive advantages.
The partnership between Apple Inc. and Foxxcon Group provides a good example, in this arrangement Apple is freed up from manufacturing while taking advantage of Foxxcon capabilities. Outsourcing has been used successfully to achieve cost saving propelling companies to venture into foreign markets, these benefits however, do not offset the projected long-term impacts on United States industries and the economy. Countries trade to achieve and maximize economies of scale in production. No single country can produce want it requires domestically. Each country specializes in producing goods or services at large scale to lower costs which formulate a comparative advantage in exports. This trade advantage allows it to nursing studies, import goods that have high production costs domestically. Cost reduction is the key reason why a company might consider outsourcing. The Magic An Essay In The Philosophy. Tasks that are costly to nursing issues, be done in-house get outsourced to partners who can offer the services at lower prices. The Magic Prism An Essay In The Philosophy Of Language. For example, if a firm requires urgently a specialized software engineer it will be much cheaper to outsource the service than training a staff member.
The hired expert will accomplish the task faster, efficiently and cost effectively. Access to experts does not only lower long term costs but providers companies with opportunities to explore new possibilities and venture into diverse work specialization enabling them to prosper in this changing times. Outsourcing presents firms with opportunities to enhance competitive strategies suited for the global market. By outsourcing product quality can be improved, lowering production costs which in case studies turn are passed down to the consumer and increasing overall productivity of the business. With outsourcing, firms enjoy increased operational flexibility presented in several ways. For one, a firm has access to a large workforce at an essay in the its disposal relived of maintaining it on permanent basis. This means that a firm is able to benefit from contact personnel minus the case studies issues stress of worrying about layoffs or idle workforce. This flexibility presents companies with freedom to adjust workforce capacity and production capacity according to an essay philosophy of language, changing requirements and case studies issues, market trends. Additionally, with outsourcing firms are equipped to handle unforeseen events like unanticipated delays, work errors or changes in management or production plans. More importantly, by we write my papers, being flexible firms can deliver on case issues, projects timely to ap biology essays, the satisfaction of the clients (Ching 34). Proponents of outsourcing point out that by doing so firms can free up capital funds and limited time to focus on core business activities.
Ancillary jobs can be performed by contacted firms or individuals. Firms especially in manufacturing are able to access latest production technologies and equipment without purchasing or maintaining them. Nursing. Good outsourcing relationship presents firms with unmatched opportunities to access a network of the alchemist essay help business partners. For example, electronic assembling firms in China partner with more than two electronic manufactures, firms sharing one assembler can benefit from the supply chain such as sourcing from a chip maker or glass display maker. The United States has a comparative advantage in industries that require highly skilled labor and capital investment.
The highly skilled workforce with a strong knowledge base gives the U.S edge in the global economy. No other country has a high turnover rate of business startups as compared with the U.S. Corporations by shifting some of nursing case studies ethical issues these jobs overseas to benefit from reduced costs distribute knowledge and facilitate spillovers. Economies such as India or China, receive spillover benefits from ap biology essays influx of knowledge enabling them to advance their economies. A direct result is nursing ethical issues, that competitiveness of of reading books U.S technology is nursing case studies ethical issues, placed at risk as its competitive edge advantage is lost from the U.S control (Mascarenhas 53). Additionally, the the alchemist essay help U.S must compete directly with emerging economies in highly specialized areas that it has enjoyed greater monopoly. Nursing Case Studies Ethical. Aerospace manufactures that now outsource subassemblies are at essay risk in the long term of creating competitors.
These partners now building components may one day build whole jets largely due to studies ethical, technology, trainings and contacts provided by U.S firms. U.S aerospace firms do not have guarantees that their intellectual properties shall be protected. Manufacturing is ending an analysis, vital to a nation, it fosters a strong domestic economy, generates employment sustaining family wages and case studies ethical issues, salaries, resulting in decent standard of living for the working class. Manufacturing firms large and small are bastions of state and local economies, supplying jobs and tax revenues to 2013, finance essential public services. Manufacturing creates economic activity spillovers in other sectors that supply intermediate goods and services. Nursing Studies Issues. It also stimulates creation of numerous high-end job services such engineers and programmers in software technology within local economies. Additionally it drives economic productivity, innovation and engine of overall economic growth.
Manufacturing of ending semiconductors, the basis of modern electronic devices, prominently add value to the U.S economy proving high-value-added production, high-wage jobs, efficiency and productivity gains, and wage growth. Notwithstanding this, the United States is losing capacity and leadership in production of semiconductors. William J. Spencer (Emeritus of International Sematech chair), summarizes the studies ethical issues leadership concerns by suggesting that a blend of market forces and foreign policies is creating powerful incentives to essay help, reallocate new chip fabrication overseas. If the trend persists, U.S leadership in chip design and manufacturing will erode with unpleasant consequences. Case. Productivity growth will slump down severely impacting the economy spilling over to military security and the alchemist essay help, might. These warnings have been raised by the National Security Agency and independent institutes. The semiconductor business demonstrates the case ethical problems arising from outsourcing key industrial sectors critical for preservation of critical national security requirements.
Natural disasters in ending essay South East Asia were chip production is being outsourced; possess a fundamental threat to electronics supply chain. For example the 1999 earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale that struck Taiwan shut down factories in Hsinchu industrial district disrupting the supply of wafers. Additionally, offshore sourcing and production of chip presents a potential threat to classified information embedded in chip designs. It greatly increases the possibility of unfriendly governments or non-state actors embedding Trojan horses, worms or malware in foreign manufactured chips to ethical, be used in military or intelligence applications. As other nations execute strategic industrial policies to build up their technological capacities and strong, modern manufacturing base, U.S. policies continue to encourage U.S. manufacturers to we write, shift their operations offshore. Nursing Case Issues. A comprehensive strategy aimed at reversing the decline in the nation’s manufacturing base will be sufficient for safeguarding and the alchemist essay, revitalizing the industrial base in the coming decades in face of looming competitive global commerce. Another long term affect that poses much greater in addition to knowledge spillovers is the lack of local talent available to studies, be utilized in the economy. English College. College enrollment for courses leading to high skilled jobs as suffered a setback due to uncertainties associated with outsourcing of case studies ethical issues these jobs.
In addition, the U.S economy is at risk of losing its attractiveness to skilled immigrants. Outsourcing disrupts education evident with the college students shunning to pursue high-tech fields and opting for the alchemist help, business oriented courses. Students are concerned that by pursuing these course coupled with instability in the labor market they face risks of nursing case studies issues losing out due to outsourcing. Studies show the proportion of graduates planning to major in computer science or engineering is now 70% below its peak in the early 1980s (Santos 87). With companies shipping IT operations to essay, countries such as India and China, these countries are capitalizing by investing heavily in education and training to continue to attract, retain best talents, and maintain competitive edge in the global IT industry. The increasing deficit in trade posse’s long term effects on the growth of the U.S economy.
The U.S economy consumes more than it produces. Nursing Case Ethical. This deficit cannot be scaled down if economic activities continue to be exported overseas. English College. Goods and services produced and provided by U.S firms are being imported back to the U.S worsening the deficit situation. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. Outsourcing also diminishes the essay help purchasing power of workers and shrinks their presence in nursing studies issues the consumer market. Most outsourced jobs to developing countries are not replaceable and ending an analysis essay, present difficulties returning them back. It also means that the few remaining positions, individuals willing to take them must accept wage cuts and reduced benefits that they would have received if these jobs were not outsourced (Bureau of Economic Analysis and ethical issues, Bureau of Labor Statistics). Outsourcing creates a population of underemployed and severely affects the middle class purchasing power. Employment losses results in lower incomes, degraded life value, decreased motivation and diminished spending. Failure by consumers to spend puts a strain on the economy; if money is college essay topics, not ploughed back the economy struggles to grow (Schniederjans, Ashlyn and case ethical issues, Dara 6).
A struggling economy impacts negatively on home ownership, individuals cannot purchase new homes or take up mortgages and foreclosures increase. Outsourcing is harmful to revenue collection to local, state and federal governments. Firms pay fewer taxes, reduced payroll receipts and fewer contributions to social security and Medicare (Khosrowpour 56). If foreign outsourcing on balance raises economic well-being, policies aimed at help arresting that activity would have a net economic cost. There are, however, other avenues for policy response that most economists think could be generally beneficial. One avenue is to work to expand overseas markets through further removal of foreign trade barriers against American exports. Nursing Case Studies Issues. A second avenue would be to we write, use policy to nursing case studies ethical issues, boost the benefits of trade by correcting deficiencies in the economy’s ability to create new products and processes that could become attractive exports. A third avenue is to use economic policy to remove any unwarranted bias against the economy’s tradable goods sector caused by an elevation of the incentives toward foreign outsourcing that arise from the economic forces generating the trade deficit (Taylor and Akila 26).
A fourth avenue would be to use policy to address the hardships and inequities arising from trade and foreign outsourcing by extending compensation and more effective tools for adjustment to those who are hurt by the disruptive effects of foreign outsourcing and ending an analysis, other market forces. Signs of nursing case studies Changing Trends. The U.S. Congress of recent has taken action to limit outsourcing and off shoring by adjusting the nation’s inter-national commerce policies, however, further measures must be done. The President has backed creation of ap biology 2013 more employment opportunities rallying for greater investments in infrastructure and moving rapidly towards clean energy driven economy. State like Ohio have implemented policies and passed laws limiting the flow of nursing case ethical public funds to essay on importance of reading books, foreign firms.
In addition, some corporations and entrepreneurs have begun to question the wisdom of nursing studies ethical issues outsourcing, deciding to set up new facilities in the United States, expand their operations within the country and we write my papers, establish firms taking advantage of American workforce skills, knowledge and nursing case studies ethical, capabilities. The federal government must immediate actions in partnership with the private-sector stimulate economic growth, job creation, enact policies, and establish long term strategic programs aimed at rebuilding the middle class and rebalancing the American economy. There are two identified measure before Congress that can be used some of the worst trade offenses. The first recognizes the manipulation of the Chinese currency, undervalued approximately 40 percent with respect to the U.S. dollar. Thus, costing the U.S. economy more than 3 million jobs. The Chinese government continues to violate its international obligations with respect to championing and safeguarding workers’ rights, human rights, illegal subsidies, currency manipulation, and respect for intellectual property rights by its citizens. Congress has been urged to enact a comprehensive trade bill enabling the federal government with tools to address these challenges combined with strengthening trade laws and their enforcement. The current tax regulations permits U.S multinational corporations to postpone tax payment on foreign earnings until those earnings are repatriated.
These provisions encourage continued investment in foreign economies with low tax rates at the expense of ending essay creating jobs in the U.S economy, and further tilting trade deficit in favor of case ethical emerging economies. Comprehensive tax reforms reflecting the english topics changing situations need be recommended and enacted. Studies. These regulations must be punitive to businesses or hinder foreign investments and expansion by U.S firms. Outsourcing has transformed the ways in which nations interact. The Alchemist. Corporations have fragmented their operations internationally in order to concentrate exclusively on their core competencies. Short-term benefits, such as cost savings were identified, however several intangible consequences and studies ethical, hidden costs were overlooked that will have an effect on the U.S. economy in essay on importance story the subsequent years ahead. There is still a lot we do not know about outsourcing, largely because the available data does not provide information needed to fully understand its magnitude, the reasons behind it, and the actual effects it has on studies, the economy. Ending. However, there is still substantial information that can be examined to analyze the long-term consequences that will alter our economic status. The sudden increase in outsourcing highly skilled professional jobs may be suspending our position in the world as a lead economic power. Companies must realize that their strategic advantages will thrive based on maximizing their knowledge-base, which is achieved through employing highly educated U.S. workers.
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