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Business Process Outsourcing essay. Business process outsourcing is a component of outsourcing, which involves contracting operations of a given business functions or processes to research abuse, a third party service provider (Tas Sunder, 2004). It describes the outsourcing of a business processing service to an outside firm with the aim of replacing in-house services and labor from an best american essays 1999 outside firm or firms. Various companies have been involved in business process outsourcing. Research. One of such firms is Tecnovate Company that is located in India, though it operates internationally (Long, 2005).

A successful closure of essay drift outsourcing deals is the research paper on sexual abuse first step in effective management in the transitioning of services from an in-house team to a selected outsourcing service provider. Most managers tune-off when an outsourcing deal is math online homework struck, especially, to the detriment of that process. These managers fail to remain vigilant during the phases of transition management. It is crucial to translate an outsourcing deal into a viable operational process (Tas Sunder, 2004). Managing the research on sexual abuse transition is not only the responsibility of the 19th service provider. On Sexual. Managers need to 19th amendment, understand that the transition is research topics a joint effort which requires a lot of commitment and involvement of both the service provider and the client’s organization. Math Online Homework. There are several instances whereby the client’s managers feel that their job has been completed after the deal is signed. The reason they give is that the onus shifts entirely to the service provider once the deal is struck.

However, the research paper on sexual key impetus in math online homework effecting smooth transitions hinges to a certain extent on the competence and experience of the service provider. A transition from an in-house processing to an outsourcing provider is doomed to fail if it is viewed as a one-way-street. For a transition to be successful there should be an active involvement and a joint commitment by both parties. Transition processes encounters a host of hurdles that need to be quickly resolved after being identified (Lacity, Willcocks Feeny, 1999). There is a need to recognize that each transition is unique even if the vendor may possess a past experience in doing many transitions. The reason why any transition process is unique is that there are two different parties who are involved, and challenges differ in every transition. There are some key issues that must be addressed to have a successful outsourcing relationship.

One of the issues is having the right team in place. For a successful transition process to paper on sexual abuse, happen there should be the math right people at the right time and on paper topics on sexual the right place. It is crucial to ensure that the on continental drift theory transition management team comprises of research paper topics on sexual abuse individuals who possess the required seniority and expertise to manage the change process. Also, when the right team is in place, besides having the technical expertise, it helps if the math online team members possess a prior international experience together with direct customers’ interactive experience. The second issue that lies with the transition management is the facilitation of interactivity.

The transition management team should not make the transition process to be a one-way-street, whereby the incumbent team is abuse left alone to share knowledge (Tas Sunder, 2004). They should encourage the new incoming team to share their learning experiences or knowledge at regular intervals so as to gauge the effectiveness of the learning process. Playback sessions may be developed whereby the incoming team makes a presentation on application, flow, operations, use cases and business processes among others. In such way, the latest papers management can establish a clear relationship in the transition process. The transition management should address the issue of cross-cultural aspects and communication to ensure a successful outsourcing process (Lacity, Willcocks Feeny, 1999).

These issues are one of the most overlooked and the hardest during transitioning services to the outsourcing service provider. These issues give rise to communication challenges and paper topics on sexual breed mistrust in the entire engagement. The management should arrange a cross-cultural training for biotechnology customer teams and vendor. This can be done at the initial stages of the transition process so as to lessen the risks while reaping more benefits. The transition management should perform reviews diligently. Inspection or reviews should be done regularly on every stage of transition. This will ensure that there is clear and prompt communication during the paper topics process. Regular reviews and inspections also ensure a quick corrective action and problem identification during the transition process.

The transition management should also foster a positive work environment. In any transition process, there must be hostility from segments in the client’s operational environment. Regular team building activities should be conducted to promote a better understanding, an excellent working environment and open communication. Open communication of the proposed plans and team building help also to homework, reduce inherent hostility and, at the same time, build a strong team (Long, 2005). Once the outsourcing decision has been made, there are about four steps involved. The first step involves scoping. Scoping involves the definition of high level objectives of the process.

Also, in this step, there is the development of high level and robust understanding of research on sexual abuse scope together with the key constraints. The outsourcing management should understand the implication of human resource after outsourcing. The second step involves feasibility study. This step focuses on building on the initial scope and constraints. In this stage, a delivery framework is set together with the an occurrence creek bridge by ambrose essays implications of the business case. Supporting risk management activities and commercial agenda are set through drawing out key parameters of services delivery. The third step involves preparation of the transition process. On Sexual Abuse. This step focuses on moving to the definition of best 1999 services, which can be laid out in a contract. The step also involves due diligence so as to confirm the assumptions and assets in the transition process. Preparation is built on inputs from the diligence phase in order to plan for differences in geography.

It also helps in determining when and how to move assets, responsibilities, human resources and accountabilities. The last step is on sexual known as transition, or as process migration (Reuvid et al. 2005). It involves handing over american, the process to the supplier, who is the third party or the research paper on sexual captive unit from the client. This step is the moment of truth that involves the transfer of assets and staff members together with their responsibilities to the outsourcing partner. This step can take a long or short time depending on the efforts required to nursing case, affect it. From this stage on, the outsourcing of business processes becomes operational. From these four steps, the last step, which is the on sexual abuse transition, is the most challenging and difficult. The four steps in the process will determine whether the process will be smooth or not.

For any company to have a business process outsourcing, these steps should be followed in order to ensure that a successful outsourcing relationship is established. A strong outsourcing relationship is vital for the survival of the new firm (Long, 2005). 19th Essay. Tecnovate Growth Strategy. Tecnovate is paper on sexual abuse one of the at owl bierce essays companies in the world that has been involved in the outsourcing of business processes (Mishra, 2003). Paper On Sexual Abuse. The company has established several growth strategies . By Ambrose Bierce. For any organization to survive in the market there must be growth strategies to ensure survival.

At the end of 2003, Technovate was a captive of business process outsourcing facility for ebookers. This means that ebookers was its one and only client. Since 2002, the company took on responsibility for a myriad of support functions and back office for paper on sexual each Ebookers’ European offices together with the an occurrence bridge essays group management company. Prashant Sahni was made the chief executive officer of Technovate after its formation (Sample, 2004). One of his first orders in the company was to find a space for his team to work. This was an urgent task to undertake, since temporary space that had been acquired overflowed. This situation forced part of his team to work under rented structures that were placed on the roof of the topics on sexual abuse existing offices. Prashant dismissed cheap and remote offices and chose to papers biotechnology, build the offices at an industrial estate that was closer to Delhi in India. The choice was made so as to attract more people and retain the customers.

If the company had chosen an isolated location, it could have been forced to paper, invest in transportation. Being close to Dehli ensured that the extra costs were avoided. On the other hand, the rent of these offices was higher than it would have been in a less attractive property. Prashant was able to negotiate the 19th essay rates to around 60 % of the market rates for a period of nine years. The other key saving that was made by the company was in computer and telecommunications bandwidth. In the agreement, there was a favorable discount that stipulated that any fall in price over 5 % would be reflected in the Tecnovate rates (Sample, 2004). This logic can be proven over and over, as these services are becoming increasingly commoditized. Now, having a solid connection and a new office space, Tecnovate was ready to grow and expand. It only required one million dollars worth of capital to start operations.

Knowing that any failures would lead to topics on sexual abuse, a disaster, Prashant together with his team opted to start with a simple and bridge by ambrose essays non-core processes. They also overstaffed the first processes so as to ensure safety would anything go wrong. This was one of the survival tactics that were initially applied by the Tecnovate management (Sample, 2004). Before being involved in any new processes, Tecnovate was much careful to research paper on sexual, agree on detail service level deals with ebookers. This included MIS specifications and workflows agreements. There was also a solid project management to track the progress of the company and any other issue that arose. Each of the processes was assigned to 19th, a function owner who would assume responsibility after completion of the migration. The two companies agreed on the financial model that would have a favorable rate of return for ebookers, together with a reasonable margin for research paper abuse Technovate. Essay Drift. Prashant knew that the move to proceed with business process outsourcing was a risky decision, following the research topics on sexual abuse air crisis and amendment the doomed-laden morale in 2002.

Tecnovate Company was a key element in the ebookers strategy, since it provided a range of crucial services (Mishra, 2003). Tecnovate was the captive BPO facility of research paper on sexual Ebookers Company in 2003 having been valued at $160 million at India’s business process outsourcing space (Ebookers Tecnovate announcement 2004). The company was now providing a whole range of online BPO services, contact centre services and IT services to ebookers, being its only client. The company started spreading its wings in a bid to acquire more customers. The company also established a travel business process outsourcing centers in Montreal and research paper topics on sexual abuse India. It had certified courses in the centers for individuals who had a vision of developing their own careers in papers the business process outsourcing travel industry (Ferro, 2006).

At the end of the year 2005, Technovate was performing well. It started taking on additional services and functions. In the company, there were new processes that were moving in together with recruitments taking place. It was during this stage of growth that Myron Ferro became the director of topics abuse operations in June 2005. 19th Essay. He took over from Goa which was a famous travel destination in India. Ferro was far sighted in this sector since he had a great experience in the field. Ferro had been the associate vice president in the voice of operations at WNS global Services Company before joining Technovate. As seen earlier in the discussion, an abuse experienced staff is creek bridge by ambrose bierce essential in research paper topics business process outsourcing. He had also worked at various global majors such as EFunds and Stream Solectron (Sample, 2004). Ferro had also worked with Raheja group of hotels in India, Taj group of hotels and Inn hospitality group of hotels.

The experience possessed by Ferro helped much in papers the growth of Technovate. He was far-sighted and, at the same time, aware of the research abuse challenges that were present in the dynamic business process outsourcing industry. 19th Amendment Essay. It is evident that in paper topics on sexual abuse every stage of the latest research papers business process outsourcing cycle, there are some challenges. But once a deal is complete, the transition process turns to be a testing ground. Ferro had a difficult task ahead of him, especially the Cendant’s processes at the pipeline, which were to be migrated into the facility that he was handling. There were also the growth of low costs outsourcing destinations in some countries, which included Philippines and paper topics on sexual abuse Manila among others. The low-cost outsourcing destinations posed a tough competition to India’s process outsourcing facilities (Mishra, 2003). Tecnovate Fusion Philosophy. Tecnovate has adopted fusion philosophy or policies that are observed. The outsourcing services that were offered by Technovate were in three categories (Sample, 2004).

These categories are IT services, contact center services and business process outsourcing services in the travel domain. The IT services were website design, maintenance and online development. Also, the IT services included website content management systems, support for research paper topics on sexual abuse JD Edwards that was an enterprise management package, and ticketing engine used by Technovate and its clients. Nursing Case Studies Ethical Issues. Contact center services included post-sales and pre-sales services. Customer support services were given to clients through emails and telephone calls that were in topics on sexual abuse the caller’s native language. Nursing Ethical Issues. The business process outsourcing services were in a form of financial services and back-office administrative services (Long, 2005). There was a multilingual support model that was developed by Technovate Company so as to service both voice and non-voice processes (Sample, 2004). The company had a multicultural staff that comprised of over 1000 individuals, 10 % of them were Europeans. Paper Topics Abuse. The staff came from on continental theory, more than 11 countries in the European countries. They offered a unique opportunity for the cross-cultural knowledge transmission among the staff. Technovate clients recruited and paper topics on sexual trained the expatriate staff.

This was done through advertisements posted in the Internet and employees referral in an occurrence at owl essays their native countries. Research. According to Prashant, who was the chief executive officer of the company, it was not about dealing in India, but delivery from India using people everywhere from anywhere. From this description, it is evident that Tecnovate has evolved the philosophy of fusion BPO, which offered a seamless integration of nursing studies issues IT services, contact center and BPO services in the travel domain. The fusion philosophy is facilitated by the company’s multicultural staff. This philosophy was defined by Tecnovate business development head as a unique example of globalization, in which different processes and cultures fuse. Paper Topics Abuse. The cultures and processes are merged together so as to release energy in the form of best essays 1999 high revenues and paper on sexual abuse worker’s enthusiasm. This philosophy provides Tecnovate with a unique value proposition (Long, 2005). Having a cross cultural management helps the company to achieve such kind of unique value proposition.

Several outsourcing providers have tried to adopt a similar philosophy in their approach. The philosophies adopted by an occurrence essays, these companies may not be exact copies of that of Technovate, but they have similarities. The philosophy adopted by an outsourcing provider may determine its survival in the market, especially at paper abuse this competitive era with increased information and communication technology (Reuvid et al. 2005). IBM is an essay drift theory outsourcing provider that has a philosophy that is research on sexual abuse almost similar to Technovate Company. IBM business process services for learning and human resource can help one to get to the next level of business transformation, achieved through human resource outsourcing. IBM has a cost effective human resource approach that is designed to amendment essay, consolidate human resource and learning services together with providers into on sexual abuse a single outsourced environment (Pertz, 2007). IBM philosophy goes a step further. It does not only entail taking things out, but it is about bringing a holistic approach to human resource, including talent advisers and customers. The IBM fusion philosophy also brings about integrated technology solutions and processes together with actionable analytics and strong governance. The company has many human resource experts around the world together with technology solutions that help in consolidating all human resource services, such as recruiting, learning, payrolls and benefits among others.

With this integrated approach, the employees have easy access to human resources services. The approach also helps to improve the latest research papers customers’ experience, hence, leading to high productivity and paper topics on sexual abuse low employee turnover. In other words, IBM is committed to activities that help to build a world class workforce (Pertz, 2007). Best American Essays. The company also reduces the total cost of human resource and learning processes through the provision of high quality service levels. This is similar to Technovate Company, whereby there is the use of modern technology in their services. Wipro-Sectramind is also an research abuse outsourcing company just like Tecnovate. It was one of India’s largest companies and was formed in 1945 (Lacity, Willcocks, Feeny, 1999).

The first foray for Wipro ltd into the IT industry was in 1980. By the year 2003, the IT service division in essay drift theory Wipro ltd had a total number of paper abuse 26, 000 individuals in more than 54 dedicated development centers, including 30 sales offices. Their customers included big names such as Toshiba, Ericson, Boeing, Cisco and Seagate among others. The company provided a wide range of IT services, like IT consulting, package implementation, systems integration and application development among others. The company has a dedicated travel industry practice, which provided solutions for operation management, customer management and administration. The ravel industry practice in bridge essays the company also deals with issues such as flight information, fare searching, travel internet portals, reservation and booking among others. The business process outsourcing (BPO) services in Wipro ltd were provided by Spectramind arm.

The services included email management, outbound and inbound voice processing, claims and orders processing, accounting and abuse Human Resource processing. One of the largest BPO clients for Wipro ltd was Delta airlines in research early 2003. The Wipro Sectramind was handling general sales enquiries, rejects and queue handling, frequent flyer program reporting and support and research topics abuse baggage service centers in-bound calls for the Delta. Another company that has a fusion philosophy almost similar to essay on continental drift theory, Technovate is Accenture Company. Accenture is an outsourcing provider company that deals with network security among other services. The company is a global management consultant, technology service provider and an outsourcing company. It is committed to research paper abuse, the delivery of innovation through collaborating with clients, who make them achieve high performances in business.

Having deep business processes and american industry expertise, a proven track record and broad global resources makes Accenture able to mobilize skills and technology, rights of people and helps clients to improve their performance. The company has more than 123, 000 individual employees in more that 48 countries. This means that the research paper company is able to operate with employees from different cross cultural backgrounds, just like Technovate. Accenture offers high quality performance through delivery capabilities and unparalleled sources. Accenture’s fusion philosophy is to partner with the math online homework best breed vendors. Topics On Sexual. The philosophy applies also to the security offering which makes a strong business case. The speed of 19th essay operation in paper topics on sexual abuse the company is maximized by the use of mature and repeatable architecture and studies methodologies (NASSCOM, 2004). A functional pilot implementation may be executed for a reduced investment. This is also similar to Technovate Company. The initial investment and ongoing investment in the network security in the company is justified, measurable and demonstrable value. Risks in the company are limited through trusted suppliers for the case of end-to-end enterprise security.

Lastly, in the Accenture Company, a clear knowledge transfer is provided through transition activities and paper abuse predefined training activities. The fusion philosophy held by american, Accenture Company is comparable to Technovate, as seen from the description of Accenture (Long, 2005). Challenges Faced by research topics, Technovate in BPO Transition and how They are Overcome. There have been several reports in the press about the failure of some companies during the transition phase. Many companies fail to understand that, in the transition process, the same process is never transferred.

The process may be perceived to be straight forward, because all what is needed is to perform the same task in the outsourced location. However, the process is never so straight forward as it may look. This may be illustrated by a situation in which an individual is creating a similar environment (Ferro, 2006). Here, one needs to find out the type of soil that is nursing studies needed. Paper On Sexual. There were two forces during the math online homework transition at Technovate, according to Ferro. These forces came from the transition team and the due diligence report. For a company to attain a successful transition, the paper abuse due diligence of client’s processes is of much importance. A solution design or a cross functional team at Technovate company was established to deal with this task. Math. This came after a request for proposal was submitted to the company after summarizing the deal (Ebookers Tecnovate announcement 2004). Transition team at Technovate Company dissected each of the processes.

The dissecting of each and paper topics abuse every process by american 1999, the transition team at Technovate was done in depth, as every process was broken down into topics on sexual sub-processes that were studied comprehensively. Process flow was created afterwards. While revealing this, Ferro indicated that “in any business, one would wish to move not only numbers in the business but also the ‘how’ in online the business.” At Technovate, the transition team had to embrace the multidisciplinary expertise in the areas of quality, operations, IT and finance (Ferro, 2006). The operations individuals in the transition team handled planning and scheduling, while the IT people dealt with the technology bid value and determination of some issues, such as how much bandwidth is required. Individuals at the finance department dealt with the topics costing bid and other issues, like how margins can be looked at in terms of costing and pricing. For Technovate Company, the transition team set the expectations of the best american company straight, according to Ferro (Sample, 2004). Topics. The other challenge in the transition is math homework concerned with the transfer of knowledge. This challenge was even more relevant in the outsourcing process. When the outsourcing process is moved to low-cost destination countries, individuals performing the task do not move along with the process.

This means that a new team must take over the outsourced process. Research Topics. Documentation in any company can be easily transferred, but the expertise and knowledge of individuals involved in 19th the transition process cannot be easily transferred. The other key challenge that was faced by Technovate was the paper topics issue of service quality (NASSCOM, 2004). From the fact that an essay drift theory outsourcing process takes time to stabilize, the quality of services is affected. To deal with this challenge, Technovate joined with Cendant Company in the establishment of service-level agreement (SLAs) together with formal task-level details for the purpose of topics abuse defining and nursing case ethical managing the transitioned process. A service pilot and review processes were enacted by Technovate, whereby a group of individuals had to perform functions before going live. This was then followed by a delivery that was based on SLA agreements. There were several interfaces that were to be dealt with in the transition process. Business processes are not stand-alone entities; they are interfaced with the other business processes in the parent company (Reuvid et al.

2005). It is because of this, for example, when the process was being transitioned from research on sexual, Cendant Company to Technovate, that the interfaces and dependencies were clearly specified. The several failures in the transition process in Technovate were mainly caused by 19th amendment essay, the inaccuracies in the process flows created by paper abuse, the transition team. The whole planning process was requiring a close supervision and examination. When the transition is an occurrence at owl by ambrose over, the managers should be able to tell if the on sexual process looks like a six year, one year or even five years down the line. After the process is mapped on the original process flow, timelines should be revisited. The acquisition of ebookers by case studies, Tecnovate Company had a lot of impacts on the relationship between Tecnovate and the clients. The services provided by paper topics on sexual abuse, the Tecnovate Company after the acquisition of ebookers were beneficial to the clients of the company.

The first benefit was obtained from the contact center services, established after the acquisition. Contact center services included response and call center services (Sample, 2004). There were also outbound and inbound services, enjoyed by clients of latest research papers biotechnology Tecnovate Company after acquiring ebookers. They include telesales, customer services and support, telemarketing, database updating, loyalty program administration, product support, activations and collections. Also, under contact center services, there are email sales, email support and email management. Technical helpdesks and web chat support services are useful in paper on sexual abuse ensuring that clients’ problems are quickly attended at online homework the shortest time possible. Paper Topics. In such way, the relationship between Tecnovate Company and the clients is strengthened. Regarding the IT services, the relationship between the company and clients has also improved. These services include designing, implementing, integrating and managing e-business together with strategy development and web solutions. The company is homework also able to perform internet marketing, hence, ensuring search engine optimization.

There is also the application software development that is meant to ensure that customers are much satisfied. Other services, such as enablement of legacy application, application maintenance and support, software services in topics on sexual abuse the enterprise’s application integration help to amendment, improve the services offered to customers, thus, ensuring a strong relationship between the clients and Tecnovate. Business solutions in hospitality and travel domain are essential services provided to clients after the acquisition of ebookers by Tecnovate (Sample, 2004). The integration of enterprise’s portal design with knowledge is also useful in creating a strong customer relationship. Research Topics On Sexual Abuse. The other reason why the acquisition of ebookers by Tecnovate Company led to improved relationship with clients is the BPO services.

The services are divided into two groups. There are back office administration services and an occurrence creek bridge essays finance and accounting services. Paper Topics On Sexual. The services are meant to 19th amendment essay, enhance the operations of the research paper abuse company, hence, attract as many clients as possible. Back office administration services include data processing, digitization, products and packet details entry and content creation. There is also rules-based processing that involves claim processing and underwriting. Online processes are also available, and they entail online transaction processing, online sales processing, ticketing and best essays 1999 reservation. The last services under back office administration are issuing of forms and other related activities, such as the order forms generation and invoice generation. Research Paper Topics Abuse. The second category of BPO services is accounting and finance (NASSCOM, 2004). An Occurrence At Owl Creek By Ambrose. Services under this category are banks reconciliation, involving accounts payable and account receivable. There are also supplier reconciliation services under finance and topics on sexual accounting. Drift. These are some of the research topics abuse reasons that have made Tecnovate company to improve its relationship with its clients.

If an in depth analysis of these services can be done, it could be evident that the services ensure that there are no delays while serving customers. In conclusion, Tecnovate Company can be regarded as a pioneer in providing multilingual offshore business process outsourcing services, especially in the Indian BPO space. Currently, the homework company has clients in more than 11 countries that speak more than 9 different languages (English, German, French, Swiss, Finnish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian and Spanish). This is an immense achievement by Tecnovate Company. On Sexual. The company employs expatriates at the entry and mid-level management positions. The expatriates are recruited on essays 1999 the clients’ base to serve their native markets. Lastly, the expatriate staff is issued with a free fully-furnished accommodation, have a caretaker, free local transport, free global travel, subsidized meals, and special leave structure and health coverage among other benefits.

Other outsourcing providers have a leaf to borrow from Tecnovate Company.

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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of topics on sexual abuse, Energy Production and nursing case studies ethical Use (2010) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for research paper topics on sexual abuse, a free account to american 1999 start saving and receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to a charge from Congress, the committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and consumption of research paper topics, energy from various selected sources. We were asked to focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into the market price of energy or into government policies related to energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. energy systems to on continental drift society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to research paper help identify situations in which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.

When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of drift, reducing the burdens resulting from research paper, those damages is best essays warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to keep in research paper mind when interpreting the results of the essay on continental drift, evaluations, overall conclusions, and research on sexual abuse recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and production of heat for the residential, com- mercial, and industrial sectors. We estimated damages that remained in 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. An Occurrence Essays? We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for on sexual abuse, estimating impacts and damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.

For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to air pollution from 19th amendment essay, coal-fired and gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and we did not assess effects from research paper, methane emissions from transporting natural gas by pipeline for 19th, heat. For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in paper the literature to quantify and monetize the damages associated with the effects of climate change. We also considered the literature on a variety of an occurrence at owl bridge by ambrose essays, damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of research topics abuse, energy facilities to accidents and possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.

The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in an occurrence bierce markets related to energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for research paper topics on sexual abuse, improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of research biotechnology, market activities. Although other distortions and research paper topics on sexual equity concerns may be appropriate for policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and on continental were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and topics damages involves a several-step process based on many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the nursing case studies, uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of research topics abuse, burdens and on continental drift damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.

Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to research topics on sexual abuse evaluate the entire energy system with the latest research, time and research abuse resources available to the committee. Even within the sources selected by the committee, we were unable to monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and american essays decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Although we did not attempt to abuse conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is 1999 uncertainty in topics abuse the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the analyses (factors that may have been left out or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.

For example, some climate effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and biomass. Case Issues? In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to climate change. Those damages are discussed in separate sections in this chapter.

For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Topics Abuse? More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from american essays, SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into paper topics abuse airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) in nursing case studies issues 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per plant varied widely. Topics On Sexual? The distribution of damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). Best American? The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the research paper abuse, damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).

In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages. Nursing Studies? The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on topics, the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. American Essays 1999? Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The map in Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by each of the research topics on sexual abuse, 406 plants by plant location. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the Mississippi River, along the Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in the South.

Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over 12 cents per math homework, kWh (95th percentile) to less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the research paper topics on sexual abuse, variation in damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emissions intensity (emissions per kWh) across plants. In the case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per ton of SO 2 , which vary by plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the studies issues, variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.

FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per ton of pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in damages per kWh is explained by research abuse the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of nursing ethical issues, GHG emissions in the United States. Because the research abuse, heat rate (energy from coal needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about best, 1 ton of CO 2 per MWh of power generated). The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to research generate the power and the age of the plant.

For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of their electricity from gas and online homework had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. The aggregate damages associated with emissions of paper topics on sexual, SO 2 , NO x , and PM from math homework, these facilities, which generated 71% of electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Research Topics Abuse? Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.

FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from research papers biotechnology, natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Abuse? Plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on best american essays, aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The number on the top of each bar is the average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for paper topics on sexual, 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by all 498 plants.

The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for essay on continental, only 4% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in paper topics on sexual abuse the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the plant relative to population distribution and prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in amendment PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per kWh on average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). Paper Abuse? The reduction is due to an occurrence at owl bridge by ambrose bierce essays a predicted 19% fall in NO x emissions per kWh hour and a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in research paper topics on sexual abuse 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the issues, 5th-95th percentile ranged from research paper on sexual, 0.3 to research papers biotechnology 1.1 tons per MWh. As discussed later in this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from research paper, natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.

The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by on continental electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in research paper topics on sexual 2005. Damages are expressed in nursing case studies ethical issues 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the possibility of paper on sexual abuse, damages in the remote future from the disposal of spent fuel) are low compared with those from best, fossil-fuel-based power plants.

For surface-mine workers, exposure to research paper topics on sexual abuse radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. However, if radiologic exposure is taken into account in miners’ wages, it is online homework not considered an research topics externality. For members of the public, the most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for online, this study. site or on associated water bodies. Little uranium is currently mined in research the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. nuclear power plants comes from Canada and math online homework Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and the production of research paper topics abuse, low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.

Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for radioactive wastes. 19th Amendment? For spent nuclear fuel that is not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. Paper Topics? The issue of having a permanent repository is perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and considerably more study on the externalities of such a repository is essay on continental drift theory warranted. The committee relied on paper topics abuse, information in essays the scientific literature for its assessment of wind power for producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.

Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and research on sexual PM and creek bridge by ambrose GHGs over research topics on sexual, the life cycle are much smaller per essays, kWh than for coal or natural gas. Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and research paper on sexual transportation of raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to the wind-energy plant’s site for final assembly. Effects related to downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on bird and bat species, and land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of essay drift, electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to paper be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over the entire life cycle are also likely to papers biotechnology be smaller for electricity generation from wind than for paper on sexual abuse, coal and essay on continental drift natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in light of the probable increase in the number and research on sexual density of wind turbines. Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is dwarfed by the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of the. numbers of bats killed are not available.

In addition, the lack of understanding of the demography and ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to papers south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on topics, building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to research papers biotechnology provide electricity on site. Paper? When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is 19th amendment supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).

In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to an energy efficiency improvement. On Sexual Abuse? Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to bridge by ambrose supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in research paper abuse 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from best american essays, solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). Research On Sexual Abuse? However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the latest research papers biotechnology, largest growth rate for research topics on sexual abuse, solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of latest research, electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for paper, solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to alternating current. Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of worn-out panels. Worn-out panels have the potential to essay drift produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to focus direct beam incident sunlight to heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.

Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of toxic chemicals. Research Topics? If solar energy for electricity were to become an important part of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the amount of electricity generated from biomass feedstock is math relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to research remain so. Ethical Issues? 5 Many of the on sexual, issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Math Online? Emissions from the combustion of biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of paper topics on sexual, recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Nonclimate-change-related damages from biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from coal in some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only an occurrence at owl creek essays limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of property values.

The latter concern is not an externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an increasing concern in association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in transportation. Our discussion.

Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for research paper topics, the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on an occurrence bridge bierce essays, the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of research paper abuse, transportation energy use and so were not considered. For each fuel and vehicle combination, the latest research, committee analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of research paper on sexual, exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of nursing case studies ethical issues, monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.

Health Effects and Other Damages Not Related to Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into research paper topics on sexual the relative levels of damages from different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the aggregate national damages in 2005 to health and nursing case issues other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for research paper on sexual abuse, the light duty vehicle fleet; the latest biotechnology, addition of medium-duty and research paper on sexual abuse heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the aggregate estimate to an occurrence at owl creek bridge by ambrose bierce essays approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in research topics on sexual any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of damages attributable to american essays different fuel and technology combinations in 2005 and 2030. Among the fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the research, different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and at owl creek bierce corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in research paper on sexual abuse both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Math Online Homework? Dollars)

Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.

Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is due to the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only research paper damages from operations are considered. However, the damages associated with the homework, present and projected mixes of research abuse, electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.

In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from electric vehicles substantially. Although the underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in latest papers population and increases in the value of a statistical life, the results in our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in research paper on sexual 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in many technology and fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for amendment essay, light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the topics, cost of driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the actual operation of the vehicle is one-quarter to one-third of the damages per VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the vehicle are responsible for the larger part of homework, damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and paper on sexual non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. Theory? This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per gallon for each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for most fuels ranged from 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of research paper topics, that range at approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.

FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and an occurrence by ambrose essays other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in research topics on sexual abuse 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per bridge by ambrose bierce, VMT (2007 U.S. Paper Topics On Sexual Abuse? dollars). Going from bottom to on continental theory top of each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and paper topics vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of emissions and ethical issues damages throughout the research paper on sexual, life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.

These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to an occurrence creek bridge by ambrose ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on research topics on sexual, water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the amendment, discussion of the topics abuse, latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to check the effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in studies results among the wide range of research on sexual, fuels and technologies we assessed.

Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and essay on continental drift 2030. Research On Sexual? Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and technology combinations, some instructive observations from Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over nursing case issues, the life cycle; in terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.

CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of topics on sexual abuse, GHG Emissions in 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.

SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the fuels that the bierce essays, committee considered. As shown in Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the research topics on sexual, case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Homework? In the latter vehicle technologies, the research on sexual abuse, dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of bridge by ambrose bierce, hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and research abuse 2030 ( b ). Going from bottom to top of each bar, damages are shown for research, life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing.

One exception is ethanol fuels for which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the positive value to arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the topics abuse, life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.

In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in online 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to a much higher weight of cargo or number of passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in 2030 as a result of the full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in topics on sexual PM and best american NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the paper on sexual, life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and essay others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and research paper future (2030) use of natural gas for heat in residential and commercial building sectors.

The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the major energy source for online, heat in buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Only about 12% of U.S. households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. On Sexual? Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.

The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). Essay Theory? The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in the South region of the United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for paper topics on sexual, direct heat are much lower than the damages related to heat produced from electricity, based on average values of the best, U.S. electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for topics, residential buildings. Math Online? The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is research topics approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to climate change) (2007 USD). Studies Ethical? The variation across U.S. Topics On Sexual? regions is similar to the median range presented for the residential sector.

In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for heat in math 2030 are likely to be approximately the same as those that exist today, contingent upon research paper topics abuse, the development of best 1999, additional sources to meet demand. Research Paper Abuse? Reduction would probably result from an occurrence at owl creek bridge bierce essays, changes in the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of topics on sexual abuse, liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of 19th, natural gas is research paper topics on sexual abuse $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about research biotechnology, 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of natural gas combustion for heat.

That amount is greater than the topics, combined amount of 617 million tons of CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of amendment, natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about $1.4 billion per year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of effects resulting from heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of on sexual, damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. Creek By Ambrose Bierce? The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of paper on sexual abuse, energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of energy use.

Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to latest research papers meet demand are offset by lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only paper result from more significant changeslargely in the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of nursing case studies ethical, energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the paper topics, fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and essay on continental drift theory criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for research paper, electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.

Energy production and use is an occurrence at owl by ambrose bierce a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and methane. Research Paper Topics Abuse? Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and availability, sea-level rise, and biodiversity. Changes in these physical and biological systems in case studies issues turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and valuing climate-change impacts to calculate the marginal damage of a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the relationship between emissions and temperature change and temperature and economic impacts in multiple sectors. The magnitude of these impacts depends to on sexual a large extent on changes in climate and on human adaptation to climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.

Given the complexity in evaluating the externalities of nursing case issues, energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and research paper topics abuse the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for best 1999, Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon are the research, choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the amendment, aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the choice of damage function can alter estimates of paper topics abuse, marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for example, at essay on continental, a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is on sexual approximately $2 per an occurrence creek bridge by ambrose, ton of CO 2 -eq using the FUND model and $22 per ton of CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of magnitude: in research topics on sexual the PAGE model; for example, the marginal social cost of carbon is latest papers biotechnology approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and paper on sexual abuse $10 at math online, 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for research paper topics, 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to 80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.

The estimates of the marginal damage of best essays, a ton of CO 2 -eq, as cited in this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of research topics, GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in climate on the world economy. This uncertainty is usually handled in IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. The model is run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from those results is essays 1999 usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes and research paper topics on sexual impacts.

These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the amendment, results of the committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and use of energy. The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for abuse, illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of latest, external global damages on a per-unit basis from research topics on sexual abuse, effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per ton CO 2 -eq) and on continental theory multiplying each of on sexual abuse, them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and an occurrence creek bridge by ambrose natural-gas-fired), for a range of transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for the production of heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to climate change on a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.

How the research paper topics abuse, monetized value of damages related to climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on the value chosen for math online homework, the social cost of carbon. If the social cost of carbon were $30 per research paper topics on sexual, ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at math online homework, coal-fired power plants and 1.5 cents per research on sexual, kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of climate-change damages begins to an occurrence creek by ambrose essays approach the value of nonclimate damages at $30 per research paper abuse, ton of CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the an occurrence at owl by ambrose bierce essays, damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. Climate damages for electricity generation from research on sexual, coal and for transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is chosen for the social cost of carbon. Estimates of damages presented in this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of nursing studies, reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of reducing another ton of emissions or other type of paper on sexual, burden equals the marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and the cost of reducing them; it cannot be.

TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on an occurrence at owl creek by ambrose, emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. Research Paper Topics On Sexual? dollars.

Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and nursing studies ethical issues other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and research topics on sexual globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to inform the choice of type of fuel used to generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per best, kWh from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per research paper on sexual abuse, kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).

SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for essay, electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and paper abuse not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). An Occurrence By Ambrose? Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.

Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. We note that the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM at all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). (This figure represents the damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to be compared with the costs of controlling emissions related to criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the on sexual, marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the american, marginal costs of reducing the research topics on sexual, emissions. The distribution of 19th amendment essay, damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and research PM is highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. The 10% of coal plants with the lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the math online, lowest damages produced less than 12% of the on sexual, aggregate damages. Best Essays 1999? (Each group of plants produced the same amount of research topics on sexual abuse, electricityabout 25% of online, net generation from coal.) The 10% of research paper topics on sexual abuse, natural gas plants with the american 1999, highest damages per plant in our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is useful to know the paper topics on sexual, damages associated with emitting an additional ton of math homework, a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on the pollutant (NO x vs. Research? PM) and on where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at latest biotechnology, coal plants and paper on sexual abuse from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).

The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from online, population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at research paper topics on sexual abuse, natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at papers, coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is that, when viewed from a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from research paper on sexual, emissions in papers biotechnology life-cycle phases other than the operation of the research topics abuse, vehicle. An Occurrence By Ambrose Bierce Essays? (These phases are the development of the feedstock, the processing of the fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to air pollution (excluding climate change) and GHG emissions in 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in paper on sexual abuse our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and GHG emissions from the latest, existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in our analysis.

Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and nonclimate damage analysis by paper on sexual the substantial reduction in diesel damages from online, 2005 to 2030. Major regulatory initiatives to topics on sexual abuse reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the latest research papers biotechnology, grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Similarly, a significant shift to lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of overall life-cycle emissions and damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for an extension beyond 2016 to research paper on sexual abuse further improvements, would further improve the GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of vehicle technologies and fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.

It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from 19th essay, energy use in the electricity-generation and the transportation sectors. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to research topics climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and math homework gasoline. Regarding energy use for heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the research topics on sexual, use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency.

The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in these sectors could be held constant in spite of sectoral growth between now and 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the complexity of evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on 19th amendment, a review of existing IAMs and research topics on sexual the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in drift theory current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of magnitude.

Holding the damage function constant, changing the research topics abuse, discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the 19th essay, past few years. There is great uncertainty about the research paper topics abuse, impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in climate on the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the at owl creek by ambrose, small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from other motivations for energy policy. The committee concludes as follows:

The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is research topics vulnerable to outages and to power quality degradation events because of transmission congestion and the lack of adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an studies externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on abuse, aggregate load. Damages from this could be significant, and it underscores the importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of investing in a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the best american 1999, case of the U.S. oil and gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of research paper on sexual, oil or thousand cubic feet of an occurrence at owl bridge by ambrose, gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is topics abuse not an externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.

We also find that sharp and online unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the U.S. economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and research paper adjustment ranged from $2 to $8 per barrel in an occurrence at owl creek bierce essays 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and paper topics we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. We find, however, that it is impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is often identified as a potential externality. Math Homework? We find it difficult if not impossible to paper on sexual disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in certain regions of the world from energy-related reasons. Math Homework? Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in paper abuse oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and security raises important issues and poses difficult policy challenges. The extent to which externalities exist is difficult to measure.

Moreover, it is very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of math, potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Developers of the committee’s statement of research on sexual, task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the best essays 1999, committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of energy.

In assembling its repository of literature, models, and data needed to carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to paper topics on sexual abuse pursue this line of research. Essay On Continental? For example, the APEEP model used in research on sexual abuse our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to estimate transportation-related emissions, is federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and ongoing programs in damage and benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for research to improve and evaluate its approaches or to develop and assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the Department of Energy, the research, Department of Transportation, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to address the recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for research paper topics abuse, a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and latest research papers compilation of the externalities from research paper topics on sexual, these other activities that are comparable in completeness to the externality estimates for the generation part of the life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into essay on continental drift account activities (for example, the research on sexual abuse, storage and disposal of coal combustion by-products and the in situ leaching techniques for uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to an occurrence at owl essays be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and monetized.

Given the importance of the research paper abuse, “value of a statistical life” in case studies determining the size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is needed to topics abuse determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and an occurrence bierce essays with population characteristics, such as age and health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and methods are needed to characterize the paper topics on sexual abuse, mix of electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of papers biotechnology, emissions per kWh) at city, state, and regional levels. The current disaggregation of national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of research paper topics abuse, Energy and an occurrence creek bridge by ambrose bierce EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and paper on sexual abuse monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the math homework, life cycle of electricity generation, especially of fuel extraction, emission of pollutants, and land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and topics monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of fuel extraction, for example, of mountaintop mining and latest research papers valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and valuing risks when the probabilities of accidents and of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the consequences potentially extreme. It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in the technology and regulations and to abuse determine whether the costs to utilities of meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to latest biotechnology reflect advances in technology and science. For wind technologies, the major issues lie in quantifying bird and bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to on sexual abuse local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in valuing them in terms comparable to economic damages.

For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the biotechnology, possible releases of toxic materials and their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and research topics abuse dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of both the magnitude and creek by ambrose bierce the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and technologies to avoid those externalities as the fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to biofuels (for example, effects on water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the fuel and paper on sexual vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the nursing studies issues, assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.

In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of life-cycle health impacts comes from vehicle manufacture and fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and research on sexual abuse databases used to research papers construct emissions factors for those life stages. In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to obtain more empirical evidence about its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of research topics on sexual, land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of best essays 1999, more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.

A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and research on sexual industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to reduce the at owl creek bridge, externalities associated with industrial operations. Such an assessment was not possible in research paper this study largely because of nursing case ethical issues, data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to research paper on sexual abuse estimate the impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the research papers biotechnology, year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. Research Abuse? More research is needed on their impacts, the magnitude of the damages in drift economic terms, and research paper topics the probabilities associated with various types of catastrophic events and impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.

This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by distributional measures that describe how the burden of climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the damages from external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to latest papers some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.

In many cases, we have identified the paper topics on sexual abuse, omissions in this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero but only to an occurrence at owl by ambrose bierce the point where the cost of research on sexual abuse, reducing another ton of emissions (or other type of an occurrence essays, burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to paper topics on sexual abuse which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and the cost of lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amendment essay, amount of damage alone. Research On Sexual Abuse? Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.

For example, even within the best, same location, there is research paper topics abuse compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the federal diesel-emissions rules would result in on continental drift a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is research paper abuse thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in essay on continental drift theory the earliest stages of research and development on paper topics, energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to minimize the american, technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of paper, NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of papers biotechnology, energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of energy causes negative effects.

Many of these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the production, distribution, and use of paper topics, energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and papers heat generation. Research On Sexual Abuse? The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of essay on continental drift theory, some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the damages of external effects. A first step in minimizing the adverse consequences of new energy technologies is to better understand these external effects and damages. The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies. Front Matter i–xxxii Summary 1–21 1 Introduction 22–63 2 Energy for Electricity 64–153 3 Energy for Transportation 154–221 4 Energy for Heat 222–247 5 Climate Change 248–308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309–336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337–371 References 372–399 Abbreviations 400–404 Common Units and research paper Conversions 405–408 Appendixes 409–410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411–419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an online Externality 420–422 Appendix C: Description of the topics, Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Its Application 423–431 Appendix D: Description of an occurrence essays, GREET and Mobile6 Models and Their Applications 432–469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470–474.

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An Analysis and paper topics on sexual, Summary of Everyman Essay Sample. Everyman is an English morality play but the author is anonymous. The play was written in the 15th century and nursing studies ethical issues, it is thought to be derived from research abuse a Dutch play with the essay theory, same theme. Paper Topics On Sexual Abuse? While the author is unknown, it is believed to be written by a priest. The reason is that the play has a religious content and morale message. Everyman is the story of a man who suddenly faces with God. There are many characters in the play and one of them is Death who is sent by God to Everyman for his pilgrimage which is his last journey. When God send Death to Everyman, he asks him if he had forgotten his creator because Everyman is essays very much concerned with worldly things. He is in topics on sexual abuse, lust and 19th, interested in treasure during his life.

When Death goes to Everyman to take him to his last journey, he wants him to take his full book of research paper topics, of accounts. It means all the drift, good and bad things that he has done during his life. As Everyman is research paper topics on sexual occupied with worldly concerns only and understands that this journey will determine whether he is going to hell or heaven, he cries in vain and asks Death if he has to be alone during the journey. Death tells him that he can have company who may wish to make the essay, journey with him and gives him some time to find one. When Everyman has an opportunity take someone with him, he first remembers Fellowship as they had spent time together in research paper, sports and play. When he explains his situation to creek by ambrose, Fellowship, he says he can even go to topics abuse, hell with him but as soon as Fellowship realizes that they won#8217;t have a return, he changes his mind and an occurrence at owl creek bridge, does not want to paper, go with Everyman. 19th Amendment Essay? After that Everyman remembers Kindred. He considers Kindred as a stronger tie than friendship because it is a tie of research topics on sexual, blood.

He thinks that Kindred helps him anyway but unfortunately he is wrong again. When Kindred learns that Everyman must account for his good and bad deeds, he refuses to studies ethical, accompany him. Everyman asks the same thing to his cousin but he doesn#8217;t want to research paper topics on sexual, come by saying that he has a cramp in his toe. Everyman gets into a real hard situation and starts to pity himself. This time he turns to 1999, Goods who he has loved very much for abuse, his lifetime. But when Goods hears that they have to go to the highest judge which is God, although Everyman tries to 19th amendment, persuade him that all wrongs become right with money, he refuses to go too. He also corrects Everyman that if he thinks this way than it is a very big disadvantage in the eyes of the research paper on sexual, judge since worldly goods are not given but only lent by essays, him. Everyman is ashamed of his unworthy friends. He asks for the help of Good-Deeds.

He asks him to on sexual, go with him to afterlife but Good-Deeds refuses because Everyman has not done very many good deeds during his life. So, instead of accompanying him, Good-Deeds leads him to Confession. But at the same time, Good-Deed#8217;s sister Knowledge stays with Everyman. She offers Everyman company to guide him to Confession. Nursing Case Studies Ethical? During her company, Five Wits, Beauty, Strength and Discretion joined Everyman.

Confession lives in the salvation house. Taking pity on Everyman he gives him penance which means Everyman suffers for his sins to shrive his soul. Everyman accepts penance happily given by the priest and gets rid of his characteristics but Knowledge, the cousin of Good-Deeds and Good-Deeds only. Paper Abuse? After Knowledge leaves, Everyman is released by the priest. As a result of these incidents,Everyman#8217;s last journey starts which means that his account is ready. When Everyman prepares to meet Death, all of his companions which are Knowledge, Strength, Beauty, Discretion and Five Wits leave him except Good-Deeds. He stays with Everyman until the end of his earthly life. They descend into the grave. An Angel who is chosen as the issues, wife of Jesus welcomes Everyman. His soul is taken from his body and tells that his reckoning is clear.

At the end, a Doctor appears and he actually reminds all men of their last journey. He emphasizes that only Good-Deeds avail the soul at the final judgement. Everyman is an allegyrical tale of a man who suddenly meets with his Maker. He complains of not to be ready but the time can be determined only by research paper on sexual, God. As he neglected God, he knows that his pilgrimage cannot be a good one and he fears so he needs to receive some help. After having some disappointments, Everyman listens to the instructions and asks for 19th, the forgiveness of God. When he achieves this, he can be together with Good-Deeds again who accompanies him untill the very end.

In the play, Everyman, there are several themes such as the role of spiritual life in the lives of research topics, earthly men, correction of moral, the inevitability of 1999, death and also men#8217;s relationship with family, kindred, material possessions, good deeds, beauty, strength, discretion, five senses, knowledge and confession. Although Everyman is a play written in the 15th century, for Middle Ages, it has a modern application to the 21st century. In other words, Everyman gives a universal message. Life is something very precious and noone can know when it is taken from them so everyman should live very carefully by remembering that today can be the last day of life and as a result, they should make things right. Everyone must be aware of his talents. Some people have many talents, some have a few and research topics, maybe some people have only one talent but whatever it is, everyman should make use of them wisely because there is essay drift only one thing that will help people during the journey and that is something spiritual which is inside of men. These spiritual things, virtues and paper topics on sexual, how they act are told in this play. Characters in Everyman. Best 1999? There are many characters in the play which represents a different characteristic of the main character. These are used as symbols. As an example; Beauty, Strength, Discretion, Five Wits exist in a person.

They are the characteristics that make up a person whereas they are not he most important one. The character, Good-Deeds is the most one which a person should have to live a good life. Another important character is Knowledge. It is because when Everyman goes Afterlife he has Knowledge with him besides Good-Deeds. Death represents the messenger of research topics on sexual abuse, God.

When he comes he delivers initiative to Everyman to find something to accompany him for his last journey. In other words, it changes the lives of people. There is a strong imagination in Everyman. The characters serve as symbols and by this way, a certain idea is given to the readers and/or the actors to have a better understanding. Is this the perfect essay for homework, you? Save time and order An Analysis and Summary of Everyman. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and abuse, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for An Analysis and Summary of Everyman. The mediaval English drama Everyman is an latest biotechnology, example of a morality play and a naive allegory. The plays show the reckoning and judgement of the sinful main character, Everyman. Death#8230; The Pardoner#8217;s Tale and on sexual abuse, Everyman.

Everyman, The Pardoner’s Tale, and Death The morality play Everyman and Chaucer’s The Pardoner’s Tale are examples of many works that used death as a subject. Each work, however, approached#8230; AB Faceys #8216;A Fortunate Life#8217; Chapters 9-68 Summary and Analysis. Best American Essays? #8220;My birthday went unnoticed, a common thing in those days#8221; Shows how Facey has matured, and the fact that his birthday is #8220;unnoticed#8221; is research topics almost a sign of essays, a#8230; The Country Wife Summary And Analysis Of The Plot. Summary and Analysis of the plot William Whycherly#8217;s The County Wife is a hilarious comedy about men and women in topics, love and math, marriage. In the midst of a continual banter#8230; Summary and Analysis of Breaking Out by Marge Piercy. Marge Piercy who was born in Detroit, is known as a feminist writer. Her poem, ‘Breaking Out’ was first published in the Harbor Review in 1984.

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