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A Quick Guide to The Unified Modeling Language (UML) If you become familiar with the UML you will find that you will be able to think of more ideas and also to work out how good an persuasive essay idea is. You'll be able to turabian l. 1996. papers theses and dissertations share your idea with others. UML is becoming valuable in the job market. Use a diagram when you need to think about something, share ideas with someone else, save an on divorce idea for the future, show management the research book, work you've been doing, when you can't find a bug in code, or when your teacher/adviser requires it. You can use the UML to make rough sketches, to persuasive essay on divorce express a blueprint of the code, as input to a code generator, or as required documentation of a finished project. Keep it simple -- only use the UML when you need it. Essay Challenge. Draw diagrams that give most value. For example, don't draw a deployment diagram unless the software is running on many machines.
Don't draw a component diagram when there is only one component -- the essay, main program. Don't worry about packages until you need to have 10 or more classes. Turabian Kate L. 1996. Theses And Dissertations. The UML helps with these tasks: In all diagrams, never draw more detail than you actually need. Omit things that are not important or are uninteresting. Persuasive. Notice that you often have to add comments or text to a diagram using English, Mathematics, or Java/C++ syntax. How do you draw diagrams in the UML. (howtodraw): First: only draw a diagram when you need to: to clarify your thinking or to essay about record for the future what you've decided. Second, UML is persuasive essay a flexible set of diagrams. Here are some ways to use them: (UseCase): A use case names a type of user (actors) and something that they want to do (usecase). An actor can be a human, a device, or a piece of software but it must not be part of the system we are producing. The use case describes how an actor achieves a specific tangible goal. The important part of a usecase is the description of the steps that the actors take to achieve their goals and how the system appears to respond to the actors actions.
Use any tool to write these Scenarios. Essay About. The UML provides a diagram that is good for summarizing a collection of use cases. The actors are drawn as stick figures. The things that they want to do are shown as bubbles. Notice that the persuasive, icons are drawn just like in the next diagram. Rules: The actors must not be part of the software that you are describing. They are outside it and use it. They can be people, machines, or other software. Usecase names must describe some activity that an actor wants to do. A simple rule is to start each usecase name with a strong verb: Review grade, update record, Get money from your essay writing ATM, and Control nuclear reactor are good names.
Grades and do email are bad ones. Avoid having a large number of on divorce overly simple usecases that can be covered by one simple one: Instead of add record, change record, delete record, print record. etc use Access and update record, for research paper book example. Use Scenarios to show this detail. (Scenarios): Each use case will need to be described in more detail before you work out how to implement it. A scenario describes, step by step, how a particular user gets what they want from the computer. It says what the user does and what the essay on divorce, computer does as a result. However it does not spell out all the details -- things like whether there is a tool bar or the color of the screen is essay about and communication best left out.
It also pays to be very specific about the particular user you are describing. Similarly, at the start of a project only list the obvious and straight forward scenarios. Add special extensions to persuasive handle the exceptional cases later. Your Essay Skills. Student Enrolls in Class: Jo Doe goes to persuasive on divorce the phone and identifies his/herself. The computer gives a list of things that a student can do to the system. Jo asks for a list of sections in a course. The computer shows Jo the essay and communication, sections he or she is interested in. Jo selects one section to enroll in.
The computer records the persuasive essay, enrollment and confirms that Jo is enrolled. What does the User Think its all about. Dupont Challenge 2014. (Domain): The trick that makes object-oriented designs easier to work with is that we use classes in persuasive on divorce, the code that reflect the world in which our clients and users exist. The picture of the user's world can be called a Conceptual Model, Business Model , or a Domain Model. It is an excellent source of ways essay ideas for classes inside an object-oriented program. It is also the perfect model to start the design of a data base. Both Domain and Architecture models are a collection of boxes which contain just the essay on divorce, names of the types of objects you expect to be in the software. Show their interconnections as links between the boxes. You can add more detail if you want -- role names and multiplicities can help clarify the meanings of links. It sometimes clarifies a diagram if you list the attributes of some of the classes in a domain model or architecture. Your Essay. In a complex project you tabulate the attributes for each enity in your domain model -- the on divorce, result is called a Data Dictionary.
These diagrams are also drawings of the data base. In some projects you may have to use a more complex notation called an to improve your Entity-Relation-Attribute diagram instead. In a database, domain, or conceptual model avoid all verbs! The names in the boxes should be names of real entities. For example, the persuasive, name Enroll is not a good name for for a box. It describes an action. Student is a good name. Enrollment is research also a good name. Actions appear in persuasive, usecase scenarios (see above) and operations in sequence charts, collaborations, and class diagrams (see next).
(Architecture): An architecture is a picture of the types of objects in a system plus a list of their attributes and operations that these objects will perform to meet the dupont, users needs. Essay. Add operations to classes at the same time as you sketch Sequence and Communication diagrams. (Sequence): In a Sequence diagram you show the paper domesday, users (stick figures) and objects at the top. A vertical line goes down from each of these. Essay On Divorce. Arrows show one object sending a message or calling a function or operation that belongs to another object. A big X indicates that an essay object deletes itself.
What happens in the software when student Jo Doe ( jo ) drops a section( s ): (Hint when designing): A System Sequence Diagram or SSD is a good first stp towards a design. It shows all the steps in one scenario as messages flowing into the complete system under design. You typically have 1 or more actors and a single :System object. Draw one when you start to analyze a scenario to prepare to design objects that implement or realize the scenario. Essay On Divorce. Then draw a Sequence or Communication diagrams for each step in the SSD. A Manual For Writers And Dissertations. (Communication): In a Communication diagram actors and persuasive objects can be anywhere and sequence is shown by essay about numbering the messages that are sent. These show the overall communication pattern but make the sequence of events less clear. What happens in the system when Jo Doe adds a Section. In the more complex CASE tools the on divorce, Class diagrams and les techniques de la philosophique these diagrams are linked together: adding an arrow on persuasive essay on divorce a Sequence or Communication diagram helps you to add an operation to the class diagram.
Or when you add a new message the CASE tools can list the possible messages (operations or functions) you might want to send. (Collaboration): This is the paper, old name for what is persuasive essay on divorce now called a Communication diagram. They were more complicated, see [ uml.collab.gif ] for turabian kate l. 1996. a manual for writers papers and dissertations an example. On Divorce. (Class): The UML can express most things you can code in C++. A single box represents a class of objects. Research Paper. The name of the class is at the top. In the next part of the box list the on divorce, data each object contains. In the third part of the your essay, class box list the operations (functions) that an object can carry out. Notice that instead of the C++ 'int example(float x)' we have 'example(x:float):int'. Also omit the word void in all UML diagrams! Note: you can sketch a UML class quicker than you can write a C++ class.
Hint: When sketching leave the bottom and right hand edge of the box until the end! Connections between classes in a UML class diagram. Essay On Divorce. Here are all the links commonly used in a class diagram: C++ classes have data members that are part of the state of the whole object. In the UML we can use the dark diamond to indicate that the class is composed of the turabian kate l. 1996. a manual of term papers and dissertations, components. The UML has two or three ways to show this. For example, here is the on divorce, code for a class called Period: Here are a couple of valid diagrams that show that each Period contains a pair of times and up to ways to improve your 5 days. Persuasive. A simple composition with a multiplicity of to improve writing one indicates a simple data member in the C++ class. Persuasive Essay. A fixed multiplicity suggests an array. A range of multiplicities or an asterisk suggests a more complex data structure such as a vector, list, or set. If the order is important, then the constraint should be put at the end of the link.
An vector is an ordered collection of variable size. If the data is research accessed via a pointer then a simple arrow should be used to indicate this: Note: older books used to put an uncolored Aggregation diamond at the other end of the association to show a pointer. Note: If there is a vector (or list etc) of pointers then use the arrow with a variable multiplicity. (Object): It helps to be able to draw objects as well as classes. The rules are simple: use a box, underline the name of the object and persuasive on divorce its class, and put attributes in a compartment under the name. Here for example is a simple Counter class plus object diagrams of research paper of an on divorce object the_count before and after a particular operation is applied to book it.
Class Diagram of Counter. A recently constructed Counter object called the_count. The same object after being sent a count() message. How and persuasive essay When does an Object change. (State): Often we need to kate a manual of term theses think about on divorce how an object changes. Class diagrams give us a static picture of an to improve your writing skills object and its relations to essay on divorce other objects. Computer Science developed a theory of automatic machines (automata) that lead to the StateChart notation. Ways Writing Skills. This is part of the Unified Modeling Language. Essay On Divorce. It lets us show when and how an object changes its behavior.
Each change of behavior is modeled as a change of the objects internal state . The diagram shows these and the allowed changes between them. For example a Student starts out as a Person and then can evolve to be an de la philosophique Undergraduate or an Graduate. On Divorce. Undergraduate can become a Graduate. Each state is shown as a rectangle with rounded corners. Starting and finishing points are shown as black blobs.
Changing state means the object changes it behavior. The change (or transition) is shown as an arrow. Each arrow should be labeled with a mutator method or operation. Les Techniques Dissertation. So the arrows show what operations can be called in a given state, and show you how the operation changes the possible behaviors. Initially we can omit the labels and one state can be used as an abbreviation for a whole pattern of behavior: You can add a lot of extra information to a State chart -- the operations that trigger changes of state, the conditions governing which transition to follow, and what operations are executed when entering and/or leaving a state.
How is a complex problem solved? What is the Algorithm? (Activity): Sometimes we need to work out how to solve a problem that needs complex logic. UML State charts have evolved to allow us to draw Activity diagrams that look like old fashioned flowcharts. Below is one form of binary search for a target in a sorted array or vector of items: How is a complex architecture organized? (Component): A component is very like a class. Persuasive On Divorce. But they are designed to publix research paper provide certain interfaces and use others. It is a plug-compatible piece of software that often contains many classes. There is a lollipop notation for showing how components are plugged together.
Here is an on divorce example: The lollipop indicates the interface between the component and its clients. (Artifact): In any real project there will be hundreds of files involved. These used to be shown as components but are now documented as artifacts. The above diagram treats each source, object, and turabian for writers executable file as a separate component. Notice the stereotypes that tell you the kind of artifact that I'm using -- an executable program, a file, a document and on divorce so on. Here is a list of standard ones: We can also show where these artifacts are stored on our computer hardware. (Package): An icon that looks like a folder. It refers to a collection of other icons and paper domesday book diagrams that are said to be inside the package.
In effect it acts and looks like a folder in a GUI for an operating system or a directory. Here is a classic layered architecture that separates work done on the user interface from work done on the data base, etc. Packages are a way of organizing large projects. We can put use cases, classes, components, artifacts, . and even packages inside a package. The dotted lines with stick arrowheads show dependencies. They show that parts of on divorce one package depend on the things in the other package. If we change something at the arrowhead end then we may be forced to change things at the other end as well. These couplings should be minimized when possible. The above packages is the classic organization used in many software packages. The user interface decisions are worked on in the top package, and essay challenge kept separate from essay understanding and solving the user's domain problems.
Separately, at the bottom, we can work on ways your how to use the persuasive essay on divorce, database (Persistence) and how to use other servers (Network). What Software is running on which device. (Deployment): Use a deployment diagram in the UML to show the turabian kate a manual for writers of term papers, hardware that your software uses. You can add information describing operating systems, language interpreters, or details (CPU type for example) if this is valuable to know. When a component of persuasive essay a software system is turabian kate l. 1996. of term papers and dissertations completed it becomes an artifact and persuasive essay can be deployed onto a system that can use it. Essay About Language. We show this with a deployment diagram that also show the artifacts. You can show what software runs on a node in a deployment diagram by persuasive essay on divorce listing it under the node(UML 1) or inside it(UML2). You can also make the de la philosophique, node bigger and draw the artifact inside the cube. Essay On Divorce. This is a nice way to show how web-based systems work because these typically depend on a browser in the user's PC, server software on philosophique a web-server, and a separate data base running on a special data base box. Here is one way that one of my web applications was deployed until recently: artifact::=`A software component (typically a file) that can placed (deployed) onto a system and be used their`. component::= a module , a software chip, some code that can be compiled separately from other modules and essay on divorce tested on its own.
It provides and uses interfaces. usecase::= An activity that a user wants to do and which the computer can help . In your future career you may need a text book. Paper Book. If so try: Martin Fowler UML Distilled: A brief Guide to the standard object modeling language Addison-Wesley Longman, Boston MA 2003 ISBN 0321193687 CR 0408-0893.
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Divorce Persuasive Essay
One Flew Over the Cuckoo#x27;s Nest Essay. and events in the novel, as seen from persuasive on divorce, a patients eyes. Randle McMurphy, the main character of the novel portrays the theme of the individual against society through his dealings with Nurse Ratched and the hospital. “The main action of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest consists of McMurphy's struggles against Nurse Ratched. Her ward at the hospital is a society in itself. McMurphy challenges the rules from the research paper beginning” (Malin 224). The effects of the battle between McMurphy and Nurse Ratched is expressed difference between the persuasive essay novel and the movie. In the book, the research domesday book fishing trip was a planned event that the Nurse kept trying to ruin. Despite her attempts, McMurphy managed to convince Dr. Spivey to join the group when a prostitute named Candy came with only one car. In the movie, McMurphy hijacks a school bus and encourages the essay on divorce other men of his ward to participate in this act of paper domesday book, rebellion against Nurse Ratched.
Also, the former fisherman, George, was on the fishing trip in the book, but was not at all present enrage Ratched to cause disorder and thus destroy the foundation of regularity and consistency; he succeeds in persuasive this when he and the other patients pretend to watch the to improve your essay writing skills World Series and Ratched explodes in anger. When McMurphy finds out that he is one of two patients that are involuntarily committed to the hospital, it makes him realize that he alone is persuasive on divorce fighting for his freedom, and the others have been repressed by Ratched to les techniques de la philosophique the point of being afraid to rebel against her or simply leave. McMurphy Anyone who dared to cause an uproar was humiliated in group therapy sessions, or given Electroshock Therapy, or in extreme cases such as McMurphy, lobotomy. In the hospital, McMurphy represented the rebel, the opposer to the Combine (McCarthyism), the one who wanted to break free of persuasive on divorce, society's conformity.
Setting is also important, as it refers to the period this book was set in, the 1950's. Ultimately, it is a reflection of philosophique, what was happening in American society at the time, and what American society Throughout the mid-twentieth century, America withstood a period of revolutions as younger generations started to challenge society’s standards and persuasive essay on divorce beliefs. Publix? One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest takes place during the end of the essay on divorce 1950s and in a manual for writers papers theses and dissertations the midst of the Civil Rights Movement, a time when many citizens began to challenge conformity. This novel was set among patients and workers of a mental institution. The mental institution is designed to cure patients who are deemed “insane” as a result of persuasive essay, lack of the novel that leads many to shy away from dupont, exposing the material to teenagers. On Divorce? Considering the type of things that young people are exposed to in the media and in everyday life, I honestly do not agree with the reasoning behind banning One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest from high school curriculums. Jennifer, a 17-year-old student in California says, “The words and scenes don't bother me. It's like TV today.
It's not anything different. There are other, worse books, and curse words you hear daily.”  In Ken Kesey's novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest the patients in a mental institution are put through a restorative treatment in order to follow the line and fit into society. McMurphy, he who breaks boundaries inspires the dupont essay rest of the patients to live their lives when they are slowly giving up their struggle for persuasive life, to rebel against to improve, the authority of the Big Nurse and her undermining attempts to get them to submit to her power and rules. Uniformly disturbing the principal at Welton Academy adult and thus even at the age of thirty-one Billy appears to be no more than a kid to essay on divorce Nurse Ratched and philosophique the other patients of the persuasive essay ward. When Billy asks his mother to treat him like and adult she asks Sweetheart, do I look like the mother of a middle-aged man?(Kesey 247). Dupont Essay Challenge? When Nurse Ratched catches Billy sleeping with a prostitute even mentioning to Billy that she will tell his mother drives Billy to kill himself. The power that Mrs. Bibbit has over her son is an persuasive essay on divorce, excellent example of les techniques de la dissertation, how Ken One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Critical Essay One flew over the Cuckoo’s nest, written by persuasive on divorce Ken Kesey in 1962 is a gripping multidimensional novel, set in ways to improve your essay an Oregon Mental Institution set deep in the countryside.
The novel is narrated by essay on divorce an American half-Indian known as the “Chief”, who is about language a seemingly deaf and on divorce dumb patient with Paranoid Schizophrenia. By choosing Bromden as the narrator instead of the main character McMurphy, Kesey gives us a somewhat objective view, as its coming from only one the men to gain control over themselves by questioning their compliance and apathy towards their own lives. Miller created Danforth to be similar to what Big Nurse is in Cuckoo's Nest. For Writers Of Term Papers And Dissertations? Danforth is strict in terms of his authority in the court. And not only is he adamant about his own personal authority, he acts the same way about the persuasive on divorce authority of the institution of the court system.
He thinks that the court is the highest authority in the land, and turabian l. 1996. a manual of term papers theses and dissertations because he presides over it, he will not stand for The movie, “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest”, is a film that relates to Foucault’s analysis of essay on divorce, discipline and punishment. Foucault’s argument is that power works in a disciplinary way in current society. The movie can relate to this because the l. 1996. of term institution that the movie took place in was ran using Foucault’s disciplinary technique. There are many scenes from the persuasive essay on divorce film that give an analysis of Foucault’s argument. Book? Foucault believes that people have the power to punish the docile bodies that they In the struggle between McMurphy and the Big Nurse, good and essay evil are represented in the form of male and female. Paper Domesday? This struggle is clearly marked as a sexual one: Nurse Ratched derives a great deal of her power from her ability to infantilize and on divorce humiliate the men – to render them sexless. McMurphy calls her a “ball-cutter,” and according to Harding's analogy she is the “wolf” who has turned the men into castrated “rabbits.” As Robert Forrey describes in his article, “Ken Kesey's Psychopathic Savior:
Nurse Ratched’s “manikin” he used to do what ever she told him but after he started laughing he actually took care of the patients and was opt to essay make the carnival and take them out for the fishing trip. Laughter relates a lot to One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest. It is a representation of the ability to persuasive on divorce decide for your self. Billy Bibbit was always being bossed around by the nurse and his mother. Once he knew he could laugh and stop listening to what everyone demanded of him he started to essay writing skills loosen His attitude to each of them is easy to guess: for example, he talks about electroshock therapy as a mean of punishment rather then treatment. Persuasive Essay On Divorce? As I already mentioned above, the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest deals with the mental diseases directly, talks about what and how ill people feel, about their treatment and les techniques de la philosophique possible consequences. Persuasive On Divorce? Shakespeare only slightly touches these issues in Hamlet. Les Techniques De La Dissertation? He does not go so deep into persuasive essay details and talks more about the relationships among people was taken away, he was left as a lifeless human being because of Nurse Ratched's inability to control him. Throughout the kate l. 1996. a manual theses novel we see people being controlled, lives being destroyed, and people being brainwashed. We also see one character who is able to resist, to hide from, and totally ignore the Nurses, Doctors, and the others trying to control him.
His name is essay on divorce Mr. Brombden but goes by the name of Big Chief. Chief pretends that he his deaf and dumb so that That’s the one time the other patients thought Mac was crazy for believing that he could do such a thing. The Chief’s exhibit’s his pretense throughout the movie to every character but Mac. The other patients and nurses see The Chief as a dumb, deaf, and publix research paper mute Indian. We as the audience know that not to be true. Persuasive On Divorce? The Chief is quite the opposite as what others see him as, has the ability to talk and listen but chooses not to do those things because he doesn’t want to essay and communication be disturbed by the other the word of God or new religion proposed by Jesus. McMurphy also attempts to reveal the damaging effects of Nurse Ratched's mental ward, parallel to Jesus' attempts to bring humanity, out essay on divorce of the darkness, and, into the light of the Lord, where one can be eternally saved from original sin. In the first scene, we also meet Ellis, a man who has received numerous treatments at language and communication, the facility and has become completely docile and, Now he's nailed against the wall (20).
This image can be associated The patients in persuasive on divorce the mental ward are the only ones who ever work on cleaning the hospital. The labor in addition to controlling the patients keeps the writing staff complacent. This complacency forces the persuasive on divorce staff to follow Rached's orders. Intimidation and fear are used quite often by paper book the staff to keep patients in line. The use of persuasive on divorce, this is les techniques philosophique shown in in the use of shock therapy and lobotomies as threats to keep patients well behaved. Patients that were victims of failed lobotomy attempts are kept on the ward a C cup, or any ol’ cup at all?”(176-7). So, as we can understand, McMurphy’s insulting manners to get over her dominion includes men sexuality with his fifty to position cards, his pride in essay on divorce having had a voracious fifteen-year-old lover and his Moby-Dick boxer shorts, clashes with the sterile and sexless ward that Nurse Ratched tries to maintain. The “fear” of women is one of the novel’s most central features. As most of the your essay writing male patients in the novel have been damaged by relationships Bromden suffers from nightmares that he believes are real, A furnace got its mouth open somewhere, licks up somebody (81).
And he floats in on divorce and out of a debilitating fog, They start the kate for writers papers and dissertations fog machine again and it's snowing down cold and white all over me like skim milk, so thick I might even be able to hide in it if they didn't have a hold on me (13). Bromden is describing what he believes to be real: He is insisting that answers to basic questions cannot hang upon so fragile a peg as 'fact' envisage a potential outcome by using the rules of conventionalism that are assigned with a stereotype. Despite the typecast of these two characters through sexuality, the narrative that surrounds each is unique. This uniqueness allows the fight each one pursues against society Bromden's illness. This, I believe, is a positive aspect of the persuasive essay novel, however there would seem to be, at least one, negative aspect to Kesey's choice of narrators.
This choice of narrators for Kesey, in my opinion, may be considered troublesome. He seems to ask the reader to trust the voice of a madman. Ways To Improve Writing Skills? This seems to persuasive essay do anything but create a narrator who is trustworthy. Upon rereading the Nest, I found myself doubting the narrator because he seems to de la philosophique be inconsistent. In the first section of the uniform all the way down the front” (275) and revealing breasts that she had concealed. With this metaphorical rape, Kesey is equating the men regaining power with sexual dominance over women. The rape of the nurse is seen as a heroic act by persuasive essay McMurphy, which conveys the misogynistic message that men have a right to sexual power over women. The way that McMurphy performs this rape is effectively silencing the publix paper nurse, as he had his “heavy red fingers [in] the essay white flesh of her throat” (275). Using silence and authority over the men in the ward. Forman, in the film however, does not make many attempts to float Nurse Ratched’s concealed femininity to the surface. Forman does not want to mess the minds of the essay challenge spectators (with Nurse Ratched’s suppressed woman ness) and danger marginalizing the significance of the fight of the patients, which is the center of the movie.
Randall delicately develops relationships with the other patients and encourages them to think for themselves. In one act, he asks perfect-looking face. However, she is heavily endowed in the chest area, and Chief says that one can tell that it makes her bitter to think about it. The novel makes the persuasive essay on divorce Nurse seem huge, in describing her physically, and the other inmates refer to her as Big Nurse. In the film, she is a petite lady that does not have a noticeably large chest in any way. It is hard to imagine the Nurse without her chest, so it makes one wonder why the film does not include this aspect. In the novel, when Nurse Ratched and punishment to help his “disciples.” Finally, the patients support the party that McMurphy has in research paper domesday the ward with alcohol and the two prostitutes. Persuasive Essay On Divorce? The main reason behind this event was to ensure that Billy Bibbit, one of the patients on the ward who lacked self-confidence, got to have a date with Candy, one of the prostitutes whom Billy liked.
This event is another example of how McMurphy would risk trouble for himself for the betterment of others and how they supported him in his actions. Thus, Kesey’s imagery Chief makes references to this machine throughout the book, a “smooth, accurate, precision-made machine” (Kesey 25). In reality, the Big Nurse influences the patients herself, treating them in a condescending matter. She also sets the patients against one another, through encouraging tattling with a log book in which patients record revealing statements about each other told in confidence, with some reward to the writer. As well, her therapy sessions are like ‘pecking parties’ in which “The flock gets awaits him by protecting Sefelt. Book? He also knows that if he does attack him, Nurse Ratched would almost certainly destroy him.
He does it simply because he knows that no one else was about to step in and help. McMurphy?s punishment, electroshock treatment, killed the one thing that he was so proud of ? the control he had over himself. One could argue that McMurphy was a Christ figure, a martyr that died for his followers. There are many references to Christ and the Bible in the novel. He takes twelve ____, who plays his part in the moving pictures, fits this appearance exactly. Essay? Bromden is a half Colombian and les techniques de la dissertation Indian and pretends to be deaf and dumb. This is one reason why he has full access to the whole building, because nobody fears he could hear something he is not supposed to. But he is also always sweeping the halls and therefore needs this special right. Persuasive On Divorce? The plot in the film has more differences regarding to the story than the characters had. Similarly becoming an adult.
At first Mrs. Bibbit does realize that Billy is an adult and is able to function in turabian l. 1996. of term papers and dissertations society, When his mother tells him he has plenty of time to accomplish things such as going to college, and Billy reminds his mother that he is thirty-one years old, she replies, 'Sweetheart, do I look like the mother of a middle-aged man?' (Kesey 247). This shows that Billy’s mom does not seem to understand that Billy is an adult that is able to live in persuasive essay the outside world. This Results in him feeling corrections dept. She doesn't. She arranges a lobotomy for ways to improve writing Mac. That's how she wins. Ratched destroys Mac's ability to function at all; she neutralizes him; she takes away his humanity. There are many situations in which Nurse Ratched exhibits control over her patients, by persuasive on divorce treating them as subordinates, humiliating them and de-masculinizing them without concern for language and communication their well-being. She uses control to withhold simple privileges, such as being able to watch a baseball game on persuasive essay on divorce, the television, tub privileges work and exclaimed, Why, this is an outrage. an outrage. (138) at every bowl she saw.
McMurphy replied, No; that's a toilet bowl. a toilet bowl (138). Through this exclamation Mr. McMurphy makes fun of Mrs. Ratched's choice of words to research get over the fact that he did, indeed, do a bad job on the toilets. After McMurphy's crazy fishing trip, Chief Bromden and following McMurphy's lead when he uses the `advantage' in persuasive essay Harding's words of mental illness to intimidate and outwit two gas-station attendants ` The doc wouldn't lie like that about just any patients, but we ain't ordinary nuts; we're every bloody one of us hot of the criminal insane ward, on our way to San Quentin.' As the les techniques philosophique men and the doctor grow in confidence McMurphy retreats further into the background , allowing the men to essay individually challenge themselves and grow. For example when there One flew east And one flew west And one flew over the cuckoo's nest. The one that flies over the cuckoo's nest is the publix research paper giant, allegedly deaf-mute Chief Bromden. In Ken Kesey's original novel, Chief narrates the persuasive story, providing evocative images of an all-powerful bureaucratic 'harvesting machine' fostering functionalist social integration: a combine that would process out individuality, thus creating compliant individuals (the exaggerated representation of this in the film's ward is a mental picture of the situations but he also makes use of many literary terms. The most common literary term used, that is present at least twice in every page of One flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, is simile, where a comparison is made between two seemingly unfamiliar things.
An example of a simile is present when Bromden describes one of the prostitutes: “Her fingernails are red as drops of blood against les techniques de la, the shiny black patent-leather purse” (172). The author makes use of onomatopoeia when the Chief 1962 was known as the freedom summer, which developed the fight for civil rights among black people in the US and worldwide. This historical setting of essay on divorce, One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest influenced the ideologies throughout the essay about language and communication inscription of this novel. Ken Kesey developed his conceptual ideas of isolation through the setting of the characters.
These concepts are developed through the essay on divorce protagonists, B Randle Patrick McMurphy and Nurse Ratchet. McMurphy challenges all aspects of l. 1996. for writers of term papers and dissertations, rules and regulations McMurphy does the persuasive same. One of the patients on the ward, known as Chief hid from everyone the fact that he could hear and speak. McMurphy was the one that encouraged Chief to speak for the first time after so many years of ways to improve your writing skills, silence, when he said, “Thank-you” (Kesey, 1962, p.217). This ultimately healed Chief of on divorce, his illness. McMurphy’s actions parallel the miracles performed by Jesus. Finally, McMurphy makes the publix research ultimate sacrifice to represent a Christ figure. Persuasive? After an to improve essay writing, incident on the ward, McMurphy same fate as the other patients. Randall Patrick McMurphy comes to the ward totally sane but with a few issues. He is a serious gambler and essay con man.
He is admitted to les techniques de la dissertation philosophique the ward from Pendelton Prison Farm and on divorce diagnosed as a psychotic. He admits that one of the ways writing reasons for getting himself committed is to find new people to con in essay order to make money. Research Book? He is good-looking, charming, strong, and very manipulative. He doesn’t realize that being admitted to the Anyone who dared to cause an uproar was humiliated in group therapy sessions, or given Electroshock Therapy, or in extreme cases such as McMurphy, lobotomy. In the essay on divorce hospital, McMurphy represented the paper book rebel, the opposer to the Combine (McCarthyism), the one who wanted to persuasive on divorce break free of society’s conformity.
Setting is also important, as it refers to the period this book was set in, the 1950’s. Ultimately, it is a reflection of what was happening in American society at the time, and what American society under the supervision of a trained staff Medication is the major treatment; the drugs are used to keep the patient’s illness under control, although this can have its down sides. There is no way a doctor can be sure a medication will be the correct one for a certain patient. Research? This means the medications must be experimented or played with until the right drug and persuasive essay on divorce dosage is found. If the wrong medication was to be administered side, effects such as dry mouth, drowsiness, stiffness, restlessness or two electrodes.'; So, even the patients, who had suffered the oppressions of society, became a society of their own, forcing McMurphy to stand up for them because they were too small to do it themselves. Another theme in the novel is machinery taking over. Throughout the novel, Chief talks about essay about language and communication implants and monitoring devices placed throughout the hospital. In his “visions'; he pictures the Big Nurse as various types of on divorce, machinery, “So she really lets herself go and her painted smile twists
The patients admired McMurphy because no one had ever stood up to her before, and he would do things for them such as arranging basketball games. He was also the one who enabled the patients to use the tub room for card games, and so they could get away from that horrifying music that the domesday book nurse always played. The tub room is also significant in essay the power struggle because it was the doctor who helped McMurphy obtain it. Publix Research Paper? The Dr. was the one who came up with all the solutions for the problems that the Ratched, in the end takes his life. Out of all the persuasive on divorce characters the one I loved most was that of Martini, a small man with a huge smile. He is perpetually smiling and always happy and does not let anything bother him. Even though he has no role as such in the film, without him, it would have been dry and lifeless. Essay And Communication? He brings out the funny parts of the movie and makes sure that the morbid theme does not overwhelm the audience. One of the scenes in this film, which has a huge and very profound impact
Hee. We are- the rabbits, one might say, of the rabbit world.” Before McMurphy entered the ward, most of the men were husks; they were so chagrined they wouldn’t even laugh out loud. Persuasive On Divorce? Major Characters McMurphy- Robust, strapping, humorous, and essay 2014 large, McMurphy is the main character of the novel. Persuasive? He manipulated the court system to get himself committed into the mental ward (to get out of a work sentence). Essay Writing? His entrance into essay the ward sets off a whole chain of events, as he and the The Characters of One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest in Film and Novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest was a critically acclaimed novel written by Ken Kesey and later on to improve your essay, a movie adaptation, directed by Milos Forman, which was similarly critically acclaimed earning itself an extremely high 96% on rotten tomatoes. However said appraisal of both works, does not excuse the gleaming errors and artistic licensing seen throughout the entirety of the film.
Granted there were no major plot holes and alterations For example, Chiefs beginning to play basketball is a major accomplishment on the part of McMurphy. His constant encouragement finally drove Chief to play. Another example is the persuasive essay group discussions. McMurphy tried to incorporate everyone into these discussions simultaneously. This can be seen when he rallied everyone’s support to try to kate for writers of term and dissertations convince Nurse Ratchett to persuasive essay on divorce let them watch the World Series on television. The two psychological interventions that were administered to McMurphy while in the Ratchet interrogated the patients and made them feel uncomfortable. The hospital also had electric shock therapy and lobotomy as other treatment methods. Also, the hospital gave the patients medicine, this is a biological approach, even though it was given to these people unwillingly.
Mrs. Ratchet also allowed McMurphy to receive a vote in order to watch the ball game and language she bended the rules or was too strict in order to win her position. On Divorce? This is a behavioral approach because McMurphy watched the so long, he admits that he has ill feelings towards Parris and the way that Parris gives sermons. Proctor does not like authority, and since Parris talks as though he is an authority figure, Proctor has an issue with this. Proctor is essay language and communication very critical over representatives of authority. Proctor changes from persuasive on divorce, a timid character held in bondage by his sin, to a strong, righteous man who will die for the truth.
This drastic change in a manual theses his character is the basis of his significance to the outcome of the play She believes him to be an ordinary man and that he will eventually settle down. Nonetheless, McMurphy continues to do all he can to annoy her. Throughtout the story, the two battle against each other, seeing who will give in to who first. Everything is rather harmless until and persuasive essay inmates party rolls around. McMurphy smuggles in prostitutes to help out the inmate, Billy. When the nurse found out what had been going on research domesday, she was furious. Billy ended up slitting his throat and bleeding to death. McMurphy
Characters like Billy Bibbit, who is too timid, with a speech impediment and Harding who is a closet homosexual and was less avert in sexuality were seen as having mental problems, and were committed to the asylum. McMurphy demonstrated the treating of these patients like normal people, helped them to essay on divorce become more in line with society then Nurse Ratched’s rules and group therapy meetings, or pecking party as Chief Bromden would call it. Chief Bromden was a Native American and wasn’t insane until he
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Divorce Persuasive Essay
E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to essay on divorce, the adoption of your writing, e-business solutions for B2B activities. Essay. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the literature to describe the technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and turabian kate of term papers theses, barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an persuasive Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings – The results of the research domesday survey indicate a lack of persuasive essay on divorce, enthusiasm among Princes’ supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for research domesday book, internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.
Research limitations/implications – The empirical survey is limited to persuasive essay, the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of descriptive findings. Publix. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications – The work has significant implications for the development of Princes’ e-business strategy, and – by extrapolation – for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value – The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1– between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to the conducting f business transactions over essay on divorce, electronic/computer networks, including the internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and trading of products, services and information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).
There has been considerable publicity given to the use of e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the essay 2014 supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and with customers for essay on divorce, transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable – “ . . . e-commerce is no longer an alternative, but an imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the a manual for writers papers and dissertations best approach for establishing and doing business in the digital economy? ” (Lee, 2001, p. 49). On Divorce. This suggests that, in moving into to improve your essay, an e-commerce business environment – over which there is little choice – there is a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for companies or industries and that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is essay on divorce, uniquely challenging and essential.
Such a strategy should concern not only the dupont essay challenge appropriate technology choices of tools and solutions, but also the coherence and integration of persuasive essay on divorce, these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and Harrison, 2002). The empirical component of this paper – presented after theoretical background – explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. Ways Essay. meraldinsight. com/1359-8546. Persuasive Essay. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353–362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for ways to improve, FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and persuasive essay on divorce, the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Ways Your Essay Skills. Within the broad definition of persuasive on divorce, e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved – the internet being only one possibility. Moreover, both within the literature and in ractice, there is confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term “e-commerce” synonymously with that of “e-commerce mediated via the de la philosophique internet”, or “I-commerce” (e. g. Manecke and persuasive essay on divorce, Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and dupont essay, Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the internet and the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the impact of e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options – email, EDI and the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.
The three options are discussed below. Persuasive. Email was one of the first applications to run on the internet and involves the essay about direct transmission of persuasive essay, text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). Your Skills. It is quick and uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.
Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for persuasive on divorce, over 20 years and has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. On the inbound supply-side of an organisation’s operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and research, improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and persuasive essay on divorce, frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and the cost of participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is typically characterised by closed groups of users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of publix research paper, switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by persuasive essay on divorce EDI has tended to be limited to research, larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the on divorce internet is essay challenge 2014, being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. Wagner et al. , 2003, Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).
Internet technology differs from conventional EDI technology in several important ways. On Divorce. It is relatively inexpensive. It is based on open standards and therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to ways your essay, accommodate changes in persuasive essay on divorce users with ease (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to ways your, customers and persuasive, suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to research, inter-firm transactions.
Internet and essay on divorce, Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and improve process efficiency through the sharing of turabian kate a manual papers theses and dissertations, information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the term used to essay on divorce, describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of turabian kate a manual papers theses and dissertations, (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and persuasive, O’Sullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and kate a manual of term papers theses, extensibility – i. e. the potential to access further applications via a web-server – (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to on divorce, match the robustness and ways to improve essay writing skills, capacity of EDI for carrying out B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. Persuasive. , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to paper, be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of on divorce, published literature to research paper, develop a macro view of the causes of this and of the essay scale of the problem.
The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is structured around the perspective of dupont essay 2014, a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. Essay On Divorce. However, the essay about and communication data, upon persuasive essay, which it draws, is not specific to the FMCG sector. Writing. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Persuasive On Divorce. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 354 For some time, EDI has been the technological choice of large manufacturing and retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. Les Techniques. (e. g. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and persuasive essay, industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and dupont, efficient means of conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for essay on divorce, these organisations, there is little need to consider the pportunities offered by kate l. 1996. of term papers the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the persuasive on divorce internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Dupont Essay 2014. Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of essay, retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and essay about, tandardisation of approach. Individual companies may supply many customers – some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.
In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is persuasive essay, not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). Dissertation. There is typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to essay on divorce, run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the problem has been highlighted in a number of surveys, which are summarised in to improve essay skills Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.
These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). On Divorce. Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant – particularly the desire to reduce costs – and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in dupont challenge 2014 nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). Persuasive Essay On Divorce. This suggests that a cautious and dupont, possibly opportunistic view of the technology prevails and that an important factor influencing the extent and effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisation’s perception of the risks and benefits associated with the essay technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of publix, ecommerce implementation. In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and persuasive, provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the essay about and communication FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.
It presents a survey of the company’s supply base, and discusses how the findings of this informed the essay on divorce strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into les techniques dissertation, the adoption of e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of smaller businesses in the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland – Wagner et al. , 2003; and Wales – Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as “low” Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the strategic importance of internet technology and were using it to develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of adding value International study (Baldwin et al. 2001) More advanced use of the internet in essay on divorce technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to the findings of ways to improve your writing skills, previous studies, it also elaborates on them by providing a ore detailed company perspective of the issues. Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers – the end users of a product, and customers – retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Typically, manufacturers of FMCG products must use retailers to access their consumers and as a consequence the balance of power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on essay, the side of a small number of paper book, extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and on divorce, Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. Publix Research Paper. These organisations, by irtue of their position in essay on divorce the supply chain, are the change agents in research domesday the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for tier-1 suppliers, e. g. the introduction of persuasive essay on divorce, product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.
A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to turabian l. 1996. for writers of term theses, respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (O’Keeffe, 2001). This O’Keeffe refers to as the on divorce change from the “supply chain management era” to the “network era”, key components of the l. 1996. for writers of term papers change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with “powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers” (O’Keeffe, 2001); i. e. an nvironment in which cost reduction is a management mantra.
Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of both specialised and persuasive on divorce, commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to about language and communication, develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of being squeezed between e-committed retailers on on divorce, the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Essay About. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and is the largest UK supplier of persuasive essay, own-label processed grocery products. The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and publix research paper, dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive – R, proactive – P, strategic – S, tactical – T) Barriers Pressure from others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of persuasive on divorce, new business models – e. g. the role of intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction – e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency – e. g. reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and logistics (P,T) Business process integration – integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from employees – based on fear, inertia, lack of faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers – unwilling to drop proprietary systems and ways writing, a lack of equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of security and flexibility – internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of alternative business eras in retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.
Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on on divorce, volume Focus on value Source: O’Keeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes’ major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the your essay report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. Persuasive Essay. If Cotts’ system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and essay challenge, improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the persuasive major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for research paper domesday book, different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in essay on divorce alternative solutions in order to les techniques philosophique, trade downstream. Persuasive. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to dupont challenge 2014, be imported into and exported out of SAP – Princes’ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system – quickly and accurately. Persuasive Essay On Divorce. The use of EDI, together with the integration of transactional data into Princes’ SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the company’s outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on research paper domesday book, a combination of telephone, fax and the traditional postal service.
During the latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the persuasive essay on divorce possibility of adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. About Language And Communication. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to pilot an application called “Business Connector” which used the internet to transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from essay universal and many companies – large and small – make use of alternative ERP packages. Essay Language. Thus, Princes’ use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of its total supply base (i. e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the persuasive essay on divorce quality and research, the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of such collaborative initiatives being to improve the overall performance of the supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). On Divorce. Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and research domesday book, the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.
In particular, they were interested in establishing the on divorce positions and views of the organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and anticipated impact of the internet on B2B communication and business transactions might be. The results of the investigation were to inform the development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the company forward into the twenty-first century. As a tier-1 business within an publix research paper aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and essay, implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in publix all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to undertaking this research, Princes’ knowledge of its suppliers’ views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. Essay On Divorce. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.
In the essay challenge 2014 sense that it should allow the company to focus on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the essay on divorce views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for your writing skills, the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. e. he statistical analysis of data gathered by large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the on divorce most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per cent of the published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of this approach is that the about language techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by on divorce the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. The means by which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and hence the value of the ways to improve your essay skills results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and essay on divorce, limitations Princes’ procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of this consolidation strategy, Princes’ supply base consisted of approximately 100 suppliers.
Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of business from each should exceed 1 per cent of Princes’ annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for les techniques, which completion would be unsupervised. Persuasive Essay. It was structured around the following key themes and topics: . Publix Research Paper. current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . suppliers’ views of the specific electronic communication channels, i. e. Persuasive Essay. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the questions were of the “closed” type as these were felt to be most suitable for dupont essay challenge 2014, the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the persuasive essay understanding of the issues, “open” questions were also included. Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. Language. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the appropriate respondent by name, to encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in the study. 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per cent of the 54) were received in persuasive on divorce time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes’ supply base, it is estimated that it represents over essay challenge, 85 per cent of all annual procurement transactions measured by value and persuasive on divorce, volume. Additionally, the ways to improve essay responding organisations included all but two of the company’s top 20 suppliers (measured by essay annual value).
The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to reflect the to improve essay writing skills views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to persuasive essay on divorce, those that have a positive view of e-Business. Turabian A Manual Of Term Papers And Dissertations. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the essay on divorce collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of analysis that would undoubtedly have led to greater depth of understanding. However, the primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the development of strategy. The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of EDI as part of the challenge 2014 strategy, and persuasive, 28 per cent mentioned the about language and communication use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of essay on divorce, this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.
All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of communication with their business partners, and your essay, the majority used at least four methods. Persuasive. The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and phone, used by 92 per language and communication cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of respondents respectively. Persuasive. By contrast, use of the turabian l. 1996. a manual papers and dissertations internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. Essay. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents’ views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for essay 2014, B2B communication has been rapid and far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and many saw it as equally essential to persuasive essay, business as the telephone or computer.
It was used for both demand-side and turabian l. 1996. a manual papers theses, supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of email meant that it remained the persuasive essay on divorce preferred medium of many organisations and for kate l. 1996. for writers of term theses, many transaction types. It is seen as less useful for payment and invoicing transactions than for essay, transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and essay language, acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 358 process email messages by printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per essay cent of respondents are able to integrate some of the messages directly to internal business systems. Publix. The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.
The percentage of persuasive, respondents who expect the importance of email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Of the respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in essay about the FMCG sector as a whole, where – as discussed earlier – tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to persuasive, have the power to force its adoption (Hill and ways to improve your essay skills, Scudder, 2002). Persuasive Essay. A number of Princes’ suppliers – described as “dual suppliers” in Figure 1 – are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the sugar suppliers).
Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of ways your essay, EDI is relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by persuasive on divorce the fact that the average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in the sample. In the survey, EDI is most used for conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Your Essay Skills. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Others either download the persuasive on divorce EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by turabian kate l. 1996. a manual of term papers theses the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for cost or technology reasons. There appears to persuasive essay on divorce, be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and company turnover – with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. About Language. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of respondents felt that the importance of EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.
Overall, this suggests that the scope for uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. Persuasive Essay. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned – but with much lower frequency – included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the essay language and communication use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies “may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for persuasive essay, developing supply chain management” (ibid, p. 383).
The most cited disadvantages relate to research domesday book, costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the danger of obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to persuasive essay, use the internet (excluding its use for email) to communicate with partners, only 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for ways to improve skills, business communication. Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of persuasive, Princes’ suppliers are already hooked into an exchange that has been set up by one of their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and essay about language, supply-side transactions. Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and delivery receipt. Less common uses are for on divorce, invoicing, forecasting, and payment.
Unlike EDI, the majority of messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the view that the technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. However, all respondents expect its use to increase in paper the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of nformation, flexibility and speed.
These benefits were expected to contribute to persuasive essay on divorce, business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and kate l. 1996. a manual theses and dissertations, business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. Essay. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of 2014, personal interaction, and essay, the inefficiency of the internet. Research Paper. Respondents identified technological needs in order to persuasive, implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for software middleware and for integrative hardware. Research. Study summary As summarised below, the study’s findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to on divorce, take account of ways skills, three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of generic B2B software solutions were found to be: . the immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of universal standards for persuasive on divorce, e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and a lack of turabian kate a manual for writers theses, evidence of the ability of B2B software to synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on essay on divorce, investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in the company’s ERP system (SAP). This had given the company a high degree of kate for writers of term papers and dissertations, internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to automate the procurement process from order generation through to settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and persuasive on divorce, could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on their tier-1 suppliers.
Price pressures increased during the time in publix which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes’ suppliers. Thus, there was a need for solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. Persuasive. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes’ suppliers. The technical sophistication of their approaches to internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to those using stand alone PCs. Research Paper. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to be capable of operating over a variety of channels and communicating in persuasive essay on divorce a variety of formats. Furthermore, in order to achieve full integration of the supply chain, information needs to flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of kate a manual for writers, securing the persuasive open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to language, integrate inter-business processes.
Cultural change is necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and essay, I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 360 a unified vision of the supply system. For many of Princes’ suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the research are likely to reflect the publix research views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to on divorce, those that have a positive view of ecommerce. Given this, the dupont 2014 findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for persuasive, internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for language and communication, full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.
However, although it has shown the use of internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the number of respondents that use email to communicate within the supply chain and persuasive essay on divorce, who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to exploit its potential. This case-based evidence supports the findings of research, Hawkins and Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in their approach. Essay. The adoption of essay, contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Essay On Divorce. Considering the particular position of dissertation, tier-1 suppliers in on divorce FMCG chains where the nature of essay about language and communication, relationships has raditionally been transactional and adversarial, it is clear that the development of an e-commerce strategy is on divorce, extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.
The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes’ suppliers is understandable, but difficult to incorporate into philosophique, a “one-sizefits- all” supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the result that they were unwilling and unable to persuasive essay, invest in a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in research book the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and persuasive on divorce, greater standardisation. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is essay language, squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is some coherence of approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is a general feature of tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.
In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and essay, beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to research paper domesday book, trade using a particular approach (e. g. EDI) the associated investment may be seen as too large and persuasive essay on divorce, uncertain. Essay Writing. On the persuasive essay other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the investment may more easily be justified. Where customers demand different approaches, the language supplier must apportion the persuasive on divorce investment among the research paper different relationships. Essay. This process of investment may ultimately lead to paper, structural changes within the industry via the development of a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to on divorce, maintain several means of electronic trading.
As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to fund a variety of essay language and communication, solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional “dual suppliers” fall into the same category as Princes – typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. This view of future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and are able to rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions. Notes 1 Groupware is persuasive essay, a range of les techniques de la dissertation philosophique, software tools and associated technology that is used to support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is persuasive on divorce, defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the transfer of information and research paper, he synchronisation of activities between the two applications. Persuasive. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.
We are grateful for the contribution.