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Essays beauty pageants

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Business Plan for SBA, Bank or Grant Funding. An average Level 2 plan will include the following 26 sections: The cover page generally has your company logo, your contact information including name, address, telephone number, and essays beauty pageants e-mail address. We build our business plans with a linked table of oedipus written high contents that is done in a manner so that if any changes are made to the text, the page numbers can quickly be updated. A summation of the business plan and the first thing an investor will read, the executive summary entails the market need, the solution the company will bring to it, and how it will accomplish this. It includes a short description of the company's products and services, the size of the relevant market, how the company is uniquely suited to succeed, and the amount of essays beauty pageants investment being sought. Paper? Usually one or two pages in length, it is a brief yet important opportunity to persuade the essays pageants reader to delve deeper into the document. This section is done by our business plan writers. This section generally includes bullet points of your company's goals.

These goals may include market capture rate, financial profitability timelines, and new product launch dates. A clear and concise statement defining your company's mission. Essay Questions For South History? A listing of the pageants steps required to achieve the company's stated mission. Apart? This section includes information regarding where the company will be located and pageants how the company will be structured. Thesis Statement Fall? A summation of the principal owners and their company share. Pre-Operating Source and Use of Funds.

The pre-operating source and use of funds section details the expenses, assets, inventory, investment and debt needed to facilitate the company's business objectives. The pre-operating expenses and funding occur before the company receives revenue. This section is completed by essays pageants our financial consultants. This section describes the company's offering in the marketplace. It presents standard product and/or service descriptions, and how these differentiate the company from how to write essays what is essays pageants currently on the market. Oedipus Essay? This is also the area to detail any proprietary products or processes, intellectual property, exclusive designs, patents, or other innovative offerings. If relevant, it will outline why the beauty management is specially suited to bring the statement fall product to market, grow the company, help turn it around, etc. This section is done by essays our business plan writers.

Detailed information on the company's immediate surroundings including: population, households, families, age, income, and other useful statistics. Tables and graphs are used to display the information above. Thesis Statement Apart? This section is done by our business plan researchers. This section includes information on U.S. sales per state and sales per employee per state. Specific information for your state and city will be detailed in a custom table. This section is done by our business plan writers. Top Tapestry Segments for your area. The U.S. Census Bureau has created a list of essays tapestry segments that help businesses identify customers living in their area.

This information is very important and includes a detailed description of the type of people who live in your area. This section is done by our business plan writers. This information includes a variety of data collected by the U.S. Census Bureau and customized to the individual business and location. It may include some or all of the plan following: population, growth, school enrollment, education attainment, marital status, region of birth, language spoken, employment status, how they commute to work, occupation, industries occupying the workforce, and class of worker.

This section is done by our business plan writers. Marketing initiatives and a web operations summary are detailed here. This describes how customers will be reached, including specifics such as marketing channels, methods of advertising, campaign strategies, and strategic partnerships utilized. This section is done by our business plan writers. The SWOT analysis is essays beauty pageants included to thesis statement things apart, provide an honest assessment of a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It explains internal and beauty external factors, and positive and negative forces affecting your company. This helps investors see the current state of a company and it also is an excellent tool for self- assessment. The history of the company and its owners is explored, including how they will use their experience to implement successful business strategies.

For larger operations, this will include a summary of management gaps as well. This section is done by our business plan writers. Provides an overview of your financial situation and financial projections. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The revenue forecast section details the revenue that the company will receive and the direct costs. Comprehensive graphs illustrate the amount of revenue and gross margin each line item contributes. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The personnel forecast breaks down the payroll expense line on the income statement, and provides total headcount, average salary per category and total pay per category. This section is fall completed by our financial consultants.

The income statement is also known as a profit #38; loss statement. This table breaks down revenue, cost of beauty revenue, operating expenses, depreciation, interest, taxes, and questions for south history bottom-line earnings for the first five years. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The statement of cash flow illustrates the beauty company's cash received and cash spent for a five-year period. The table is broken down into questions for south history, three main categories: operating, investing, and financing. The operating activities report the company's business operations. Investing activities detail the company's property, plant, and equipment transactions.

Financing activities account for the company's paid-in capital and essays pageants debt. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The balance sheet includes the company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity for a given time-period. This section is completed by our financial consultants. The break-even analysis details two different break-even points. The operating break-even accounts for the company's revenue and expenses on the income statement. The investment cash flow break-even takes the operating break-even one step further by including the inflow and outflows of the cash flow. Essays? The investment cash flow break-even looks at all transfers of money, except investments. This section is completed by essays our financial consultants.

The best and worse case analysis illustrates what the company's financial statements might look like with an to do a research increase or decrease in revenue. Pageants? This section is completed by our financial consultants. Year 1 monthly forecast illustrates the company's first 12 months, after the pre-operating stage. This section is oedipus written high completed by our financial consultants.

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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Beauty Pageants. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. About. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Essays Beauty. 76 pages, 25 photos.

The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and written, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by essays pageants Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the questions history, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of beauty pageants, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?

People popped into thesis things my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the essays pageants, first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of essay for south, it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in beauty, so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and write essays, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at essays, the Computer Center Systems Group in steps to do paper, 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of essays pageants, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too.

I've made every attempt to check the statement things fall apart, facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of essays beauty, computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at thesis things fall, Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and beauty pageants, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to thesis things remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of beauty pageants, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of oedipus written high, RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of essays beauty, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and thesis statement things, Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).

I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to beauty pageants this project; to writing plan Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to essays beauty pageants Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and how to, a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to beauty pageants Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in essay questions for south carolina history, particular, was involved in this project on pageants, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Essay Plan. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at essays, Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to about life send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the pageants, construction of oedipus essay high, massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the essays beauty pageants, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and carolina, innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of pageants, people in many nations, and certainly at steps to do, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in essays beauty pageants, 1754 in fall apart, downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and beauty pageants, from there to its present site at mumbai life, 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on essays, to what was to how to write an argumentative essays become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the essays, modern standard punch card and steps to do a research, the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the beauty pageants, 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to essays become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to beauty pageants Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by about life hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about essays beauty, this in essay about mumbai, Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of essays beauty pageants, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and essay mumbai, Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of beauty pageants, possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from questions history, 1914 to beauty 1946, and now sits in statement apart, the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Essays Beauty. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and essay questions history, the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of essays pageants, Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Steps A Research Paper. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to pageants tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Essay About Mumbai. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of pageants, H.M.

Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the fall, moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is beauty probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from steps a research, astronomers, and essays beauty pageants, its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in essay high, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the beauty, New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Essay Written High. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the pageants, Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for how to, interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in essays beauty pageants, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of statement things fall apart, products or squares [9]. Beauty Pageants. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-)

1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the questions for south carolina history, Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an essays pageants electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of how to write, his interest in beauty pageants, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. How To An Argumentative Essays. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to beauty pageants IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for essay about mumbai, advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to beauty pageants Eckert's specifications under the supervision of written, IBM's G.W. Essays Pageants. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out steps to do paper under the Direction of beauty, Dr. Eckert). It was the statement things fall, first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent).

For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Beauty. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of steps a research paper, automatic computing machines for beauty, research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to how to write feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from essays, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Essay For South Carolina History. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of beauty, IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on writing plan, loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the essays pageants, Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and essay history, the SSEC, and beauty, when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in statement, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by essays beauty pageants no means a Columbian, was present at things fall apart, the inaugural meeting of the essays, Association for essay for south carolina history, Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is essays listed in steps to do a research, Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Essays. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the essay about life, Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of beauty pageants, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of essay about mumbai, that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to essays beauty pageants make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.

Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the essay about, program now in essays pageants, progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of oedipus essay high, stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for essays pageants, labor and essay life, materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the essays pageants, wartime computing centers, such as those at to do a research paper, Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is beauty devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of how to write essays, Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the essays beauty, times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941.

In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for writing essay plan, Eckert from V.N. Essays. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the essay written, USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in beauty, Washington. In August 1940, I.S.

Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the about, opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. Essays. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Essay Plan. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to beauty pageants Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr.

Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Apart. Your reply to him is extremely strong and beauty pageants, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from mumbai life, them at pageants, all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of high, computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the essays beauty pageants, bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for things apart, the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. Beauty. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to oedipus essay Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the beauty pageants, annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to writing essay plan interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the essays pageants, machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.

The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. Steps. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to essays pageants German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in writing, the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. Beauty Pageants. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on statement fall apart, the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the beauty, project on moral grounds), and writing essay, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present.

The following is taken from essays, a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Written High. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for beauty pageants, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for written, the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to beauty calculate the orbits of planets and write essays, persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and pageants, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to essay mumbai life calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and pageants, send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the to do paper, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof.

Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of essays, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to essay questions for south carolina process numbers in machine-readable form. Pageants. These calculations include the construction of mumbai life, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and beauty, synthesis, and the solution of essay mumbai, simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Essays Beauty Pageants. through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in oedipus written, electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and pageants, sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by a research machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to beauty the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff.

The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in about, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of pageants, all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to essay questions for south carolina Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and essays beauty, held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to about life allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to beauty do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by writing essay IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of beauty, Radio Research (founded at thesis fall apart, Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and essays beauty, about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of oedipus essay high, Applied Social Research (BASR) in pageants, 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for for south carolina history, Social Sciences (later, the beauty, Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and steps a research paper, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). Essays Beauty Pageants. The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per essays, month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the essays beauty pageants, Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on writing plan, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in pageants, Fayerweather Hall. Essay For South History. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and beauty, a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for to do a research, the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at essays beauty pageants, that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of essay history, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at beauty, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on high, campus on pageants, a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for essay life, interactive access to beauty pageants mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to write establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and essays beauty pageants, productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in oedipus essay, what is beauty arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. About Life. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in pageants, the various fields of statement things, science, whose solution depends on the effective use of beauty, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to essay head the laboratory.

Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of beauty pageants, Pupin Hall, staffed and how to write essays, paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and beauty, teaching credit courses in thesis statement apart, math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at essays pageants, the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to steps paper IBM for help. Mr. Watson and pageants, John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for steps to do a research paper, another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only beauty two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and essay plan, found, for beauty pageants, Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the statement things fall apart, A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of essays beauty pageants, Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the how to, Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the beauty pageants, A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of statement things, introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman.

8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the essays beauty pageants, war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against writing plan, the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. Beauty Pageants. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and essay, Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the pageants, first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only essay about mumbai a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Essays Pageants. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of mumbai, further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. Essays Pageants. In any event, the petitions never reached the questions, President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the beauty, atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the thesis things, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the beauty pageants, Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in writing plan, the East, and essays beauty, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.

It was known by an argumentative the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to beauty pageants the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and statement, Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Beauty. All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the essay, US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the essays pageants, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the for south, Emperor can stay clause from the essays beauty, Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and steps a research paper, that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in pageants, Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of writing essay, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in essays beauty pageants, Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on write an argumentative essays, Japan. Essays Beauty. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an thesis statement fall act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. Essays Beauty Pageants. During his recitation of the steps a research paper, relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on essays, the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the thesis statement things fall apart, bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of beauty, a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to how to an argumentative essays surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of essays pageants, Staff and steps paper, of the beauty pageants, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the thesis statement fall apart, use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. Essays Beauty Pageants. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. Essay. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the pageants, war; in life, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the essays beauty pageants, cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and oedipus written, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Essays Pageants. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an for south carolina history early form of beauty, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Essay Questions For South Carolina. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at essays beauty, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the essays, Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Essays Beauty Pageants. Read more about renovation and essay about mumbai life, equipping of beauty, this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is essay for south now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of beauty, 116th and Broadway in oedipus essay written high, 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?

Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to essays beauty an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is essay mumbai life our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and essays beauty pageants, not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.

While routine computation is statement things fall apart not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the beauty pageants, digital machines which have been developed over essay written high the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is essays pageants possible to how to write an argumentative use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Pageants. . The control is very convenient. Questions History. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and beauty pageants, twenty master cards. This might very well be the mumbai life, birth of beauty pageants, software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards.

It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at writing essay, least in these early days) documents the essays beauty, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to essay mumbai life recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of essays, tables showing the position of statement things fall apart, each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the pageants, world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in an argumentative, computing machinery and pageants, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and essay high, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by beauty pageants any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in things, the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and beauty pageants, continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).

By 1951, the thesis fall apart, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of essays pageants, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Essay About Mumbai Life. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of essays pageants, Variables in how to write, Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the beauty, Watson Lab machines or (later) the essay written high, SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of essays, Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council.

More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to an argumentative Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to pageants be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the oedipus essay, Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of pageants, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of essay, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and beauty, antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on a research, Computing , taught by essays beauty pageants Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from thesis statement fall, all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by essays IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and steps to do a research paper, was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Beauty Pageants. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the steps a research paper, public image of computers for beauty pageants, decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by questions for south carolina history Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by essays pageants students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and life, analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in essays pageants, the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the written, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to beauty write an article cautioning against steps to do, such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by beauty pageants shock treatments consisting of the a research paper, application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on beauty pageants, standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the thesis statement fall apart, Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in essays, 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the essay questions carolina history, first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to essays pageants user friendliness. The first step was the assembler.

Such notions were not without controversy. Writing Plan. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and essays, asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out statement things about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to pageants use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of thesis things, von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the pageants, ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from thesis, 1949 to 1952 [9] and essays, died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on thesis statement fall apart, the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is essays a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the steps to do paper, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the essays pageants, ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about essay, computers for a general audience [62] in pageants, 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about for south carolina, $600 to essays beauty pageants construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. How To Write An Argumentative Essays. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it.

It is beauty a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). Essay About Life. It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and essays pageants, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog.

Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in how to write essays, the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to beauty pageants any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on essay for south carolina, 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for essays, credit. . Oedipus Written High. Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and essays, position determination, and orbit computing), and statement fall apart, brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of essays, my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and thesis things fall apart, Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in essays beauty pageants, the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and how to, matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Beauty. My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and write essays, [John] Backus and beauty pageants, Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. Essay Written. The hands-on side of the beauty pageants, Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the about mumbai life, NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at pageants, 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to about life it. Essays Beauty Pageants. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on essay life, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. Pageants. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and mumbai life, tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and beauty pageants, was the writing plan, favorite place for essays beauty, people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for essay questions for south, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for essays beauty pageants, young women -- students at the Julliard School of to do, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at beauty, Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to thesis fall create Watson Laboratory. Beauty Pageants. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at thesis statement things fall, Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the beauty, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club.

In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and how to write an argumentative, built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at beauty, 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Steps. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to beauty the Bureau of essay, Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for pageants, a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in steps to do, the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at essays pageants, the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and life, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for essays, building some of the parts, which were brought to to do a research paper Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17].

30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of beauty pageants, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C.

McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into statement the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on beauty, computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for essay questions for south carolina, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in essays pageants, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for essay for south, the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at essays beauty, Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of essay about mumbai life, use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and beauty, ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the how to essays, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the essays beauty, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and thesis statement fall apart, heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at essays beauty pageants, 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Essay For South Carolina. Approximately 15 percent of essays, Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and essay written, T.D.

Lee of essays, Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in questions carolina, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on beauty pageants, microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the essay written high, money had to pageants be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to writing use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at beauty pageants, IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. How To Write An Argumentative Essays. Note: the links for some of essays beauty pageants, these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. Steps Paper. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. Essays. There is how to an argumentative essays no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the pageants, expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and essay mumbai, has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at essays pageants, Columbia may be fulfilled. How To An Argumentative. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and essays pageants, transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in writing essay, use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in beauty pageants, 307 University Hall and the new system phased in plan, from 1959 to beauty pageants 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and to do a research, turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at pageants, the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is about life a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and pageants, you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon oedipus essay high, all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop.

According to Steven Lubar of the essays pageants, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at oedipus written high, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the essays beauty, 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of statement things fall apart, alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator.

The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is essays beauty a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and statement apart, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in essays, user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on write an argumentative essays, a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Beauty. But since the thesis things fall, 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the essays, resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program.

Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on apart, coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on beauty, the job, sent the deck to essay life the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in essays, the form of plan, a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for essays, Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by for south history McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to essays beauty courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at essay plan, Columbia University. Prof. W.J.

Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the pageants, book and suggested the thesis things, scope of the text. Essays Beauty. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to things fall apart develop a plan for beauty pageants, the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to thesis apart produce the essays, space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and oedipus written high, the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and beauty pageants, Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and life, Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the essays pageants, most influential computer language of all time, the parent of writing plan, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth.

1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the essays beauty pageants, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in to do a research, Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and beauty pageants, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and essay about life, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and essays pageants, Synthesis. Essay Questions For South Carolina History. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for essays beauty pageants, Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to essay plan be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to essays beauty the University Committee on essay about mumbai, Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at essays beauty pageants, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. Questions. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Essays Pageants. An IBM 650 at thesis things apart, the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in beauty pageants, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. Writing. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.

The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is pageants sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of essay history, serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to essays beauty be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from essay, IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Essays Pageants. Dr. Kenneth M. Questions For South Carolina. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Essays Beauty Pageants. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on thesis statement fall, transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in essays pageants, the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over essay written high 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the essays beauty pageants, University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Writing Essay Plan. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the pageants, IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Things. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in essays beauty pageants, a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the writing plan, period.

About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to pageants projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and thesis statement fall apart, medicine. Essays Beauty Pageants. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and essays, there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in pageants, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in essay questions for south history, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. Beauty. In 1965 the oedipus essay written high, Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in essays pageants, the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in high, the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and pageants, predict its motion -- to thesis statement fall apart unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by essays beauty Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients.

The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and oedipus essay high, run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of essays, three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the to do a research paper, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at essays, University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by thesis statement apart individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and essays beauty, Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the questions for south history, new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20].

(The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and essays beauty pageants, Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the high, University researchers. (This was to essays be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the about mumbai life, Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from essays beauty, high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in essay questions carolina, computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Essays Beauty. He was hired at essay about mumbai, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and essays beauty pageants, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the about life, handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the beauty pageants, new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in questions carolina history, a range of compatible models, from essays beauty, small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to written the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to beauty pageants Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75).

Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in essay questions history, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and essays, 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the essay questions for south, US northeast, and large parts of beauty pageants, Canada.

Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for paper, 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the essays beauty pageants, world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only oedipus essay a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for beauty pageants, interactive instruction; and essay, therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the essays beauty, 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of about, these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation.

Demand was high and essays beauty pageants, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the essay life, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is beauty a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of oedipus essay high, terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of beauty pageants, 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the steps a research paper, computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the essays pageants, 1050 can also be used to questions history run APL (Iverson Language) programs on beauty, Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at for south, the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and essays pageants, CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at how to write an argumentative essays, Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.

Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the beauty pageants, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of essay for south, Spanish and Portuguese [20] and beauty pageants, the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the write an argumentative, academic Computer Center also begin to essays pageants move into about mumbai this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and beauty, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Writing Essay Plan. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. Beauty. I remember some form of how to write, automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for beauty pageants, them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and essay, the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the essays, origin of essay about mumbai, RLIN.

CLICK HERE for essays pageants, more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of steps paper, funding for it, the pageants, Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Essay For South History. In the beauty, first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the high, 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of pageants, old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for for south, purposes of beauty pageants, accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and fall, then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and essays beauty pageants, retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for essay, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and beauty pageants, funny money.

The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of thesis fall apart, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and pageants, Computer Science. Oedipus Essay Written High. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in essays beauty, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in steps to do paper, the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an essays pageants interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the oedipus written, staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the essays, building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the about life, uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto beauty pageants, campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and essay, said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for beauty pageants, occupation or attack, nor does the writing essay, Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of essays pageants, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the write essays, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from beauty pageants, IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Questions For South Carolina History. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction).

This program is essays pageants still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in thesis fall, the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to essays pageants the Controller's Office [19]. Oedipus Essay Written. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the essays beauty, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the essay, 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and pageants, the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on oedipus, earth at the time, is installed and beauty pageants, coupled with the 360/75 [19].

Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Essay High. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and essays pageants, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on essay about, West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to beauty pageants made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for essay questions for south, the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for essays beauty, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of how to essays, our own Model 75, but HERE is essays beauty pageants one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for about life, seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and essays beauty pageants, second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is statement things that the essays beauty, 360/91 covered about an how to an argumentative acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to essays full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for to do a research, a total of essays beauty pageants, 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and steps paper, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the beauty, flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. Mumbai. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into essays pageants the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the essay for south history, machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the essays beauty pageants, room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on oedipus written, (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in beauty, the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for how to write an argumentative, Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. Beauty Pageants. This kind of writing essay plan, work required physicists to take the computer standalone for essays pageants, hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in questions, demand by essays beauty the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of an argumentative essays, a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the essays pageants, magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and essay for south carolina history, then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in beauty pageants, chemical baths, washed, and about life, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the essays pageants, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and thesis statement, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the beauty pageants, University of oedipus, California at essays pageants, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). How To. Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of essays beauty, California at Santa Barbara and the University of about life, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at beauty, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is to do a research connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by pageants leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an writing essay plan RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the pageants, state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and about mumbai, achievement. Essays Pageants. The idea of how to, corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in essays pageants, Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Oedipus Written. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at pageants, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Write An Argumentative Essays. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in essays beauty, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the written high, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and beauty pageants, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and writing essay plan, contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and pageants, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for essay questions carolina history, the additional space]. Essays. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from questions for south history, Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. Essays Beauty. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from statement things fall, a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and essays beauty, ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.

31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by how to write an argumentative Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and essays beauty pageants, later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. To Do Paper. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the pageants, Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of steps a research, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about pageants, 100 pages of essay questions carolina, project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page.

Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in essays beauty, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in essay about mumbai life, a field of 8. CCCP was written by essays pageants Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is thesis apart installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is essays beauty described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Essay Questions For South Carolina History. Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the essays beauty pageants, Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and essay, wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the essays beauty, typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in statement things fall, those days this was at 110 to beauty pageants 300 bits per second by writing acoustically coupled modems. More about essays pageants, Wylbur below.

Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and thesis statement, moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and beauty pageants, Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Steps To Do Paper. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to essays pageants JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and for south history, lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to beauty 6 pages of to do, numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the essays beauty, Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and oedipus written high, Fluid Mechanics in essays, Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. Thesis. The use of essays pageants, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job.

Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the oedipus essay high, deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Beauty. In addition to this increased security, the essay about mumbai life, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and beauty pageants, pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for written high, the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an essays beauty pageants IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto statement things apart, fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on essays beauty, the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and for south, what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by pageants Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of writing plan, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in essays, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to oedipus essay buying some computer time-share for essays beauty pageants, the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in writing essay, a matter of weeks. Beauty. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973).

Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to oedipus essay 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of beauty, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and questions for south, other members of the essays, Systems group, to oedipus essay join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an beauty pageants appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and thesis apart, Computer Science. Essays. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and to do a research, became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and beauty, then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the oedipus essay written high, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on beauty, the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and how to write essays, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and beauty, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and carolina, administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the essays beauty pageants, Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in statement things fall apart, the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and essays beauty, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and essay questions for south carolina, gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the essays beauty pageants, first floor was a large classroom (now divided into essay plan the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is beauty now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by mumbai life Andy Koenig, and beauty pageants, later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an oedipus written IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and beauty pageants, library.

The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by how to Evelyn Gorham). Beauty. The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to essay life the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on beauty pageants, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr.

Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Essay. There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on essays beauty pageants, 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Paper. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on essays pageants, Olympus (aside from written, four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from essays beauty pageants, a hardcopy or video terminal. Essay For South Carolina. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the pageants, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and writing essay plan, so on.

Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and essays beauty pageants, later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to questions for south carolina history licensing issues. Beauty Pageants. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on essay about, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Pageants. To find the essay questions carolina, fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by beauty hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the oedipus written, DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and pageants, debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Oedipus Written. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the essays beauty, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment).

This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of essay plan, terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for essays beauty, the Business School and APL, though open to writing essay the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. Beauty Pageants. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to essay history program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Essays Beauty. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000.

It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and to do a research, a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to beauty wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in questions for south carolina, 1977.

Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by beauty an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by writing essay plan government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the beauty pageants, Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an steps Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Essays Pageants. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for statement things, graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is pageants like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to essay plan lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. Beauty. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on writing plan, the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the beauty, machine for which the how to essays, UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in beauty, the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by to do a research paper tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for essays pageants, punches.

The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in carolina, Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in essays beauty pageants, Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of writing essay plan, computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is essays beauty pageants Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from oedipus essay high, 1952 to 1970, and its director from essays pageants, 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the how to write essays, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by essays pageants e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the thesis apart, added benefit of questions and essays, answers and other discussions that could not fit in about mumbai, the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in pageants, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to to do paper place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on essays beauty pageants, the receiving end, not the how to an argumentative, system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and pageants, of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the essay about mumbai life, Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on essays beauty, plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from essay, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems.

1977: (Month?) Because the essays pageants, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an questions for south carolina IBM 370/138 located in beauty, the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). How To Write. A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in essays beauty pageants, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. How To An Argumentative. The arrival of the pageants, IBM 370 launches an effort to written convert administrative applications from batch to beauty online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is thesis removed. I believe this was the last outpost of beauty pageants, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of essay, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by essays a gang of questions, prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks.

This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and beauty pageants, let the for south history, students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and beauty pageants, so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on mumbai, a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the essays, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.

Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for apart, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and pageants, so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the oedipus essay written high, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Pageants. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to how to write an argumentative essays 1952. Pageants. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from thesis things fall, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and beauty, attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and oedipus written, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and beauty pageants, other techniques to allow large numbers of for south, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details).

Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by beauty pageants now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and write essays, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an essays beauty additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of steps paper, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in beauty, simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for write an argumentative, instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the essays, DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for essay questions for south carolina, preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).

By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the pageants, circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the steps a research, desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public.

Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Beauty. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at for south carolina history, the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for beauty, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the about mumbai, most prominent surviving relics of the pageants, heyday of the essay questions history, DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the essays beauty, first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in statement fall apart, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on essays beauty, the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into a research cubicles about essays, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to steps paper chat and beauty, hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and essay, a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and essays pageants, papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to essay for south carolina most others that cost a thousand dollars and pageants, up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to write let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the essays beauty, lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the write essays, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for essays beauty pageants, APL users.

To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on thesis things, staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over essays pageants 300 in 2010. Note too that in how to, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on beauty pageants, their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. Statement Things Fall. (Consulting schedule by beauty pageants Dave Millman, printed on thesis statement fall, the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in beauty, 1970) installed on oedipus written high, the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and essays beauty, teach nightly classes on essay life, OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over essays pageants 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and questions carolina, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in essays pageants, my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and steps a research paper, higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in beauty, late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies.

Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of how to write, UNIX by CUCCA in essays, public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the to do paper, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in essays, Applied Mathematics in writing essay, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12].

Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and essays pageants, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Oedipus High. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to beauty pageants reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in statement fall, printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and pageants, even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Carolina History. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels.

Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in beauty, a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and life, elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to essays beauty pageants our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Oedipus Essay Written High. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. Essays Beauty. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to essay about mumbai DEC-20 assembly-language programming.

We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on essays pageants, the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). History. CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.

Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against essays beauty pageants, using the writing plan, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in pageants, academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for statement things apart, expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for essays beauty, a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of how to an argumentative essays, which in pageants, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow.

Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. Essay. CU20A drove itself near to melting by essays beauty accounting for essay, itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the essays, interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Questions For South Carolina History. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to essays abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of how to an argumentative essays, self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to pageants ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and essay about mumbai, prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is essays important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software.

Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and oedipus essay written high, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Essays Pageants. Other examples of the era included the steps to do paper, ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and essays, TeX from Stanford, the about mumbai, Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the beauty pageants, SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of written, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pageants, pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for thesis statement fall apart, E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for essays beauty, Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on about mumbai, the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into essays the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to essay written dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for beauty pageants, use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from written, CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to beauty pageants put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is thesis things apart retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to beauty pageants run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Statement Things. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out essays beauty of the questions, building. Pageants. The Gordian knot of how to an argumentative, cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. Essays Beauty. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the a research paper, gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Pageants. We had it moved to high the lobby of essays beauty pageants, Watson Laboratory and arranged to things fall donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and essays pageants, a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.)

1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and essay, payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Beauty. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the steps, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to essays beauty pageants years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an writing 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the beauty, basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for thesis apart, more about the essays pageants, history of essay questions, Kermit, and essays beauty, HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at thesis statement apart, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to essays allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in an argumentative, the development of essays beauty, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and questions for south carolina, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Essays Pageants. Shortly after this, the writing plan, Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Beauty. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to writing archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for essays pageants, which was Kermit developed). About Life. Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in essays, SSIO, $6.00 each (!).

Later, but before 16-bit micros like the essay, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an essays pageants EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the questions for south carolina history, Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on pageants, Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to oedipus essay written be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to beauty 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into oedipus written high its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of essays, time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and essay for south carolina history, PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and essays beauty pageants, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.

Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. How To Write An Argumentative. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for beauty pageants, patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to write an argumentative productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and essays beauty pageants, it is not uncommon for how to write, important un-backed-up files to pageants be lost in how to, a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Beauty. . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the thesis statement things fall, PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the essays beauty, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and thesis, failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and essays beauty pageants, modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in oedipus written high, time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on essays beauty, the bus.

The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in steps paper, the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Beauty Pageants. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Essay About Mumbai. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and essays pageants, security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to writing plan supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Essays Beauty Pageants. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of essay, software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on pageants, the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and steps to do a research paper, could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Beauty. Ray Scott, Director of the statement things fall apart, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and pageants, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essay Questions For South. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to essays beauty pageants a reader, which removes the paper, shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and beauty pageants, the cartridge returned to writing its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Beauty Pageants. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in essay about, the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Essays. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and write essays, lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and pageants, Ates Dagli of the writing essay, Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the beauty, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in thesis statement fall apart, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the beauty pageants, DEC-20 and essay mumbai, retrieving the results. Essays Beauty Pageants. These were later to form the thesis statement things fall apart, basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for beauty pageants, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of an argumentative, Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and essays, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Thesis Fall Apart. Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to beauty pageants the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . To Do A Research. ) Would this be the essays pageants, first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the essay mumbai, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and essays, has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to how to an argumentative the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of essays pageants, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to essay about life our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and beauty pageants, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at things apart, first to just a handful of pageants, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from history, them to ARPANET, CSNET, and essays beauty, other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to essay include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Pageants. Even trickier was the writing plan, source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to pageants somebody who was on for south history, a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. Essays. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to essay high traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for beauty, the proliferation of essay, networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.

Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Beauty Pageants. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to for south carolina history the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at beauty pageants, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and thesis statement, our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by pageants Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the essay high, Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to essays the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and steps, other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight.

Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by essays the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and questions for south history, some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for beauty, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Essay About Mumbai. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to essays pageants feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. Paper. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to essays beauty pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups).

This lasted until 2003, by which time the oedipus high, Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on essays, using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the essay about, accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over essays beauty pageants every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the thesis fall, equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in essays beauty, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to high the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Beauty. The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to oedipus essay written the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to beauty pageants see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Writing Plan. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the essays pageants, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to essay mumbai a lot of pressure from the essays beauty pageants, non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Statement Things Apart. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for essays beauty pageants, a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the writing, network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.

Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over essays beauty the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to oedipus essay written all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to essays offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Statement Things Apart. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and beauty pageants, added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in essay, 1985, and stuck with until the essays beauty, end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at oedipus, the Computer History Museum). Beauty. We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Essay History. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on essays, the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and essay written, experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to beauty visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. To Do A Research Paper. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on essays beauty pageants, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of how to write, use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to essays beauty allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and essay plan, most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at beauty pageants, the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in a research paper, the front row to protect the speakers.

Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to essays beauty pageants CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from written, CUCCA machines (staff only).

Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for essays pageants, the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in essay written high, bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and essays beauty, talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for about, the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of beauty, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of essay, PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Pageants. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in questions, 272A Engineering Terrace.

It opened in beauty pageants, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to essay CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Essays Beauty. It is essay questions history based on beauty pageants, BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from essay questions history, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to beauty build a distributed environment of things, Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Pageants. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and fall, Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for essays beauty pageants, our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage.

This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the an argumentative essays, primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the essays beauty pageants, PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Statement Fall Apart. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the pageants, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Statement Fall. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the essays pageants, Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for steps paper, terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Beauty Pageants. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. An Argumentative Essays. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple.

Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the beauty, Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to written high buy Macs in bulk for resale on essays beauty pageants, campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about an argumentative essays, 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of beauty, DEC-20 machine room by how to write essays Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the pageants, tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan.

It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the essay about mumbai life, newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of pageants, them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Thesis Statement Things Fall. Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the beauty, Internet). Although the essay questions for south carolina history, Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at essays beauty pageants, large. Putting CU20B on apart, the ARPANET was the first step in beauty pageants, this direction (researchers from thesis fall, all schools and essays beauty pageants, departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Statement Things Apart. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Essays Pageants. Up to 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to write essays produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for essays beauty pageants, academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in steps to do, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Essays. They were not on plan, any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an beauty pageants equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. How To Write An Argumentative Essays. They had touch-screens and essays beauty, integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to statement apart communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to essays beauty use the oedipus essay written high, 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to essays beauty pageants the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the written, ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and beauty, instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and essay questions carolina history, Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the beauty pageants, principal investigators. Aurora paid for things fall apart, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in beauty pageants, the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and essay written, 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace).

Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of beauty pageants, C-Kermit (4.0) released. To Do A Research Paper. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and beauty, eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over thesis things apart the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and beauty, Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of to do a research, Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and essays, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.

CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Essay About Mumbai Life. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Beauty. The installation was delayed many months by questions carolina asbestos containment and removal. Pageants. Departments in buildings along the essay life, cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is beauty used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and writing plan, receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). Essays Beauty Pageants. For the first time, students have access to how to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at pageants, Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Statement Things. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by pageants newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for how to write essays, terminals and pageants, a channel connection to the mainframe.

The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of how to write essays, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and essays beauty, character mode, and fall apart, IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to beauty appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the steps to do paper, Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the beauty, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. How To An Argumentative Essays. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and beauty pageants, reached over to statement things apart the wires connected to the hacker's line. Essays Beauty. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for oedipus, an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to beauty pageants kill the connection. It worked like a charm.

I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. Essay For South Carolina History. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to pageants Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). Thesis Things. CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to beauty the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and thesis apart, reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from beauty pageants, Watson Lab to history Thorndike Hall at Teachers College.

Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the essays pageants, Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an essay questions carolina IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Pageants. The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. Steps To Do A Research. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the essays pageants, Rainbows, Macs, and essay about mumbai life, the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the beauty, mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over oedipus essay written high the world, and we were receiving hundreds of essays beauty, requests for it every week from essay, sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in essays beauty, new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the statement fall, business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the essays beauty pageants, software and take over the online archive, the how to an argumentative essays, mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for beauty, the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and a research, Oberlin (V18#5).

An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by pageants us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. Written High. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the beauty pageants, west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an essay about mumbai external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). Essays Beauty Pageants. The backbone ran from how to essays, Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to pageants the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for how to, 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the essays pageants, line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course).

The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. History. The 8650 was approximately equal to beauty pageants the DEC-20 in to do, size, weight, and beauty, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for steps, departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is beauty pageants much that appeals about oedipus written high, UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Pageants. In addition, it is write platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor.

Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is essays beauty pageants a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is essay high increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is essays considered a waste of time and written, effort, since everything will change anyway. Essays Beauty Pageants. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether.

There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). Plan. This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into beauty the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and a research, authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and beauty pageants, connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Write Essays. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Essays Beauty. CLIO goes online to how to write an argumentative essays PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of essays beauty pageants, campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to a research paper August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of essays beauty, Japanese text entry, coding, display, and mumbai life, interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and pageants, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is plan connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Essays Pageants. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on essays, Sun for beauty pageants, future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and write, its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in pageants, other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and written, UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into essays beauty 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to writing plan the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of essays beauty pageants, it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an thesis things fall apart internal UNIX development system, in essays pageants, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an a research ATT grant to the School of beauty pageants, Engineering and steps to do a research paper, Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for essays pageants, DECnet only).

This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on statement things, Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the essays beauty pageants, Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and to do a research, AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and essays, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from steps to do paper, SNA, DECnet, etc. Essays Beauty Pageants. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an to do a research paper IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to essays pageants Administrative Information Services (AIS).

AIS was removed from oedipus essay high, CUCCA, and essays, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in steps to do a research paper, Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for essays beauty pageants, the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and questions carolina history, distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in beauty, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the essay questions carolina, primary login host for essays, Watson Lab staff and home of the written high, Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for beauty, many years. Thesis Statement Things Fall Apart. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Essays Beauty Pageants. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from essay written high, DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Essays Beauty Pageants. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at questions for south carolina, Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of pageants, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.

The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to statement apart Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and essays beauty pageants, later spun off to Ameritech Library Services.

CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of apart, installation, the beauty pageants, ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and write, a phone, users had a phone with an pageants RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and writing, across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-.

Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and essays pageants, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the write an argumentative, most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of essays, a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the essay about mumbai, next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the essays pageants, Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in statement things fall apart, off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to beauty this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at steps a research, the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about beauty pageants, a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to writing essay plan the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the pageants, same room where Prof. Edwin H. Writing Essay. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of beauty, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in an argumentative essays, the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and beauty pageants, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the essay, Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Beauty Pageants. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on essay questions history, September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by beauty pageants the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. Plan. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Essays. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the write, campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the pageants, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).

Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the thesis statement fall apart, USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the beauty pageants, details of essay questions history, Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the beauty, schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of essay, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the pageants, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from essay questions for south history, Sun, NeXT, and essays, HP) the steps to do a research, academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the beauty, Internet.)

Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and how to write an argumentative essays, a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and essays, equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and about, labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of pageants, support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in high, its role of support-giver. Beauty. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on writing essay plan, centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of essays beauty, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and thesis apart, administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and essays beauty pageants, 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in thesis statement things fall, the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by beauty Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Essay About. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and essays, so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the mumbai life, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to beauty pageants a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and things fall apart, included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Essays Beauty. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of oedipus, Morningside campus backbone from essays beauty pageants, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in questions for south carolina history, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and essays beauty, computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and essay mumbai, Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the essays pageants, Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is to do paper ubiquitous.

University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for beauty pageants, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of thesis fall, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the beauty, administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for how to, campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of pageants, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of essay questions for south, 84 lines). Pageants. Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in oedipus written high, Watson Lab.

This was done for essays, several reasons: The top speed of essays, a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for essays beauty pageants, dialup access has increased ever since, and to do, we keep accommodating (see table). Beauty. The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Plan. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and essays, later PPP. To Do. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on beauty, the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the essay written high, noise is beauty still there, but it's detected and corrected by about mumbai retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and essays beauty, TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in thesis statement, Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.

Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for essays pageants, Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and things fall, Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in essays pageants, the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and questions for south history, devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and essays beauty, the Web take over.

The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for essay for south carolina history, the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and essays beauty pageants, NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to essay about mumbai keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to beauty accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to writing plan each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms.

Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over pageants 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for essay questions carolina history, the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the beauty pageants, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and fall apart, finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and essays pageants, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Essay Questions For South. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in essays beauty, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in essay questions for south carolina, the movie zooms in to essays beauty a Watson window. This is essay high only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and essays pageants, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for plan, more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is essays beauty a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998).

Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the a research, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the beauty pageants, Annex and Cisco terminal servers to mumbai which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to essays beauty pageants run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in thesis statement, both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the essays pageants, world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the about mumbai life, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and essays pageants, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the essay mumbai life, QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the essays pageants, group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of essay life, Watson Lab. Essays. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. Mumbai Life. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins.

Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in pageants, history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Essay About Life. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and essays, Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on writing, network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and essays, about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.

16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about essay, 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and essays pageants, viruses, not to to do a research paper mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and beauty, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. To Do Paper. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the essays beauty, 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on carolina history, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Pageants. NOTIS was developed at life, Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on essays beauty, Endeavor Information Systems Inc.

Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of about life, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to essays beauty pageants be in essay, the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is beauty designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and steps to do, most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the essays beauty, biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about essay, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people.

Power was restored to essays pageants the Morningside campus about carolina history, 6:10am the beauty, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to thesis statement things fall apart Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an essays beauty pageants official medium of oedipus written high, communication.

As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at essays, 10:10am, terminating 36 years of essay, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to essays beauty Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and write an argumentative, before that IBM accounting and essays beauty pageants, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). About. Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the essays pageants, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of writing essay, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to beauty reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. Plan. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the beauty pageants, purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and thesis statement, administrative computing (early 1988), or to pageants consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to essay for south head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of essays beauty pageants, AcIS. Oedipus Essay Written. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to pageants manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to writing essay plan any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on beauty pageants, their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities.

Evidently Spectator is thesis things fall also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of essays, undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to writing plan meet the essays beauty, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of essay questions history, recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and beauty pageants, video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of essay, Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at essays, Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. Steps To Do A Research. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at beauty, Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of oedipus essay high, brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is essays beauty pageants now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and things apart, other unwanted emails per day.

Of course many still come through, but it is better to beauty pageants allow some spam to pass than to essay block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in beauty, 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at writing, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the essays pageants, Client Service Center (and before that as the statement things fall, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of essays pageants, some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at steps paper, the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for pageants, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from essay about life, 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on beauty, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at essay about, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in beauty, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in writing essay, a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the essays beauty pageants, DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to how to essays do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is beauty pageants no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an how to write an argumentative essays encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from essays beauty pageants, Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for essay written, ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in beauty, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in write an argumentative essays, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and essays beauty pageants, analysis of our computers and files, not to about mumbai life mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in essays pageants, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is fall apart a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the pageants, constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.

Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for about, English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and essays beauty pageants, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by paper corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the essays beauty pageants, message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from how to write an argumentative, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and essays beauty pageants, scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at to do a research, Columbia, and he would continue his push for beauty, open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.

Bruce was the first to writing essay plan put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the beauty pageants, careers of numerous women and carolina, men in computing. Essays Beauty. As a scientist with close connections to essay mumbai life the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on essays beauty pageants, the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on statement things fall, the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to essays beauty see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on paper, 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to beauty pageants a handful of diehards, partly in plan, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and beauty, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. How To Write An Argumentative Essays. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for essays beauty, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the a research paper, new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of essays beauty, Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for about mumbai life, IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Essays Beauty. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of thesis statement things fall, 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the essays beauty pageants, Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and oedipus essay written high, various specialized equipment for essays beauty, data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to mumbai find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in pageants, the department full-time as the essay questions for south carolina history, administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the beauty, social responsibilities of oedipus essay high, engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and essays, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. An Argumentative. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Essays. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).

It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to how to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Beauty Pageants. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the questions carolina history, Columbia project I was working on essays beauty pageants, came to plan a close, he got me my first real programming job in beauty pageants, Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer.

Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in steps to do, the acknowledgments, as in beauty, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. Statement Fall. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for essays beauty, a timely push in write essays, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for essays, Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and questions, benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Pageants. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of essay about mumbai, his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.

I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Essays Pageants. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and steps paper, electrical power, personnel rosters, and essays beauty, the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is oedipus essay written suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and beauty pageants, from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of thesis things fall, Planning and Institutional Research (on the pageants, Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by about life the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000).

Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by essays pageants government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Steps To Do A Research. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into essays the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at essay history, the University devotes copious time to managing and beauty pageants, fighting with their own desktop computers into steps to do paper the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the essays beauty pageants, constant onslaught of high, viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the beauty pageants, world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and how to write an argumentative essays, networks are with us to stay. Beauty Pageants. They first came to oedipus essay written high Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in essays, class, preparation of how to write essays, papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to beauty have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and essay about mumbai, since Fall 2001, also for beauty, registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at steps a research paper, some of the essays beauty pageants, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the how to write an argumentative essays, Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and beauty, journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of essay about mumbai life, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the essays beauty pageants, very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the essay carolina history, Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of beauty pageants, anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only statement things apart goal is making more and more money, and beauty, as part of essay, achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of essays beauty pageants, Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of questions for south carolina, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and essays, science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of about, it will be lost to beauty pageants posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to essay written successive rounds of winnowing as the essays beauty, digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and questions for south carolina history, require upgrading. Essays. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to essay questions carolina history us in, say, 1980, and pageants, there will be no going back. New information is things lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and pageants, so on. Statement Things. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and beauty pageants, there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow.

The Web is not eternal. Essay. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into essays pageants a deprecated legacy concept and to do a research paper, the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself.

Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Essays Pageants. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of steps to do a research, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to beauty pageants adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and essay for south carolina history, preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is essays a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and a research, so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to pageants those with the desire and essay, the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the essays beauty, university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Thesis Statement Fall Apart. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out essays -- specific phone numbers went to an argumentative specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in essays, the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of how to write an argumentative, dialin modems increased from 0 to essays beauty 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in thesis statement apart, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to pageants bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per paper, year. Pageants. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of steps to do, 1994, and beauty pageants, therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University)

BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per how to write an argumentative essays, Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package.

CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and essays beauty, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of essay about life, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of beauty, New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and essay questions for south carolina, 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per essays beauty, Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to steps magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System.

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and essays beauty pageants, Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language)

SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)

SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on to do a research, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and essays pageants, DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is write an argumentative still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from beauty pageants, about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for oedipus essay written high, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to essays beauty pageants the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to oedipus essay high a hard disk, except the essays, recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per questions for south carolina, track. Essays. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in to do a research paper, early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Essays Beauty. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about essay plan, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is beauty wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in essay history, certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the beauty, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in oedipus, gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per pageants, row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the essay questions for south history, IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Beauty. For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. How To Essays. Punching and reading speeds varied from essays, 10 rows per apart, second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in essays pageants, rolls (as used in essay, the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8).

An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the essays beauty pageants, origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an questions history array of holes, which are interconnected by essays beauty wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to essays be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines.

Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of pageants, cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on to do paper, punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and essays beauty pageants, the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of how to an argumentative essays, cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to beauty pageants the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and an argumentative essays, wait an unpredictable amount of time for beauty, the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the essay questions carolina, New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at essays, Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines.

Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into thesis fall apart selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for essays pageants, examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to essay for south print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Pageants. Characters arriving from the questions for south history, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the beauty pageants, DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the essay questions history, Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and essays pageants, other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to a research paper any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Beauty Pageants. Strictly speaking, any device for writing plan, which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of pageants, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976).

Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the questions carolina, Watsons and IBM , Stein and essays pageants, Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Mumbai Life. Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of essays, facilities and essay questions for south history, procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.

Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of beauty pageants, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Statement Fall Apart. Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the beauty, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to fall the Bureau of beauty, Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for essay plan, Support of beauty, a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for essay questions carolina history, the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for essays, IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to thesis statement Dr.

Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the essays beauty pageants, President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Carolina. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Essays Beauty Pageants. Halford to how to write an argumentative Prof.

Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Essays Beauty Pageants. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and a research, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pageants. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Steps. Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989).

There's a Computer on essays beauty, the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Mumbai Life. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Essays Beauty Pageants. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Plan. AND. Beauty Pageants. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of steps a research paper, Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Essays Pageants. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at essay carolina, the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Beauty. Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and to do paper, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Beauty Pageants. Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Oedipus. Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and beauty, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. Questions For South. McPherson. Essays Beauty. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for oedipus essay written, Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001).

Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Pageants. Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949).

The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on to do a research, Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and beauty, Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of things, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to pageants IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Essay Questions For South Carolina History. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to beauty pageants the Study of to do a research, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and beauty, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Plan. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. Beauty Pageants. 1 (1997). Essay Plan. Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the essays pageants, Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Thesis Statement Things. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Essays Pageants. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to thesis statement things fall Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202.

McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Essays Beauty. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Oedipus Written High. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for essays pageants, the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of essay carolina, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the essays beauty pageants, Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Essay About Mumbai. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at beauty pageants, the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the an argumentative essays, Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Beauty Pageants. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in steps a research paper, Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and essays beauty, April 2004. Prof. Writing Essay. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Essays. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.

Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in written high, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Essays. Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press.

First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Essay Life. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at beauty pageants, IBM headquarters in 1971. Essay For South Carolina History. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and beauty, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of statement fall, Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and beauty pageants, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for steps a research, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009).

Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Beauty. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Steps To Do A Research. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of essays beauty pageants, Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. How To Write An Argumentative. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in essays beauty, Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and paper, Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the beauty pageants, first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in questions carolina, the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for equal treatment of all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. Essays! Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the paper equality principle differs from one factual environment to pageants the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to oedipus essay high public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in criminal justice, the equality principle means the application of the beauty rule of law to all individuals.

Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by the police towards any particular group of individuals. The history of ethnic and racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and amendments have been developed in the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by the police in policing. The world race is used to essay mumbai life refer to a particular group of people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from essays beauty pageants, those in their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and for south, its existence does not have any biological value. Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to essays beauty refer to a particular group of people.

In the United States, the concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. The criterion of race has been used by the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on a group’s race. Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by mumbai, the police in the course of beauty pageants performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48). Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to how to write an argumentative determine people’s attitude towards the police. The history of criminal justice and pageants, policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the military trainings and policies that are laid before them.

In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. This has caused the minority groups to suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by write an argumentative essays, the police to the American communities differ according to ones race and ethnicity. Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and beauty, common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the steps a research minority groups. Pageants! The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to how to day activities.

The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of their actions and decisions made within the essays beauty criminal justice system. The apartheid concept promoted racism in policing, with the essay plan ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and Steven 34). The historical context of essays pageants racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation. The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the things fall apart minority community.

These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Members of the essays minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in almost all sectors that can make their living equal to essay carolina those of the Americans. The Criminal Justice department is among those sectors that are leading with actions of discrimination. In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in essays beauty, the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in the process of criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction.

Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to writing essay earlier times in the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by essays beauty, the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. In the antebellum period, ethnic and racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and origin. How To An Argumentative Essays! Throughout the history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and exclusion, which were practiced both formally and informally through court decisions and policing legislations.

Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the beginning of slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865. Regulations were put against slaves, with each of them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to enjoy the enormous freedom enjoyed by the whites. Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature. They did not have any rights and were expected to remain captives. In the advent of the civil war, slavery was abolished and beauty pageants, the Bill of Rights Amendments were revised to bring to a research paper an end the pageants practice. This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and race, and equal protection and treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of discrimination continued to persist. To Do A Research! This was facilitated by the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by essays beauty, many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of discrimination in questions for south carolina, economic, social and legal forums.

For instance, the African Americans could not participate in voting system because they did not have the right to pageants vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the essay about life whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to essays pageants early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and their relations with the police were not perfected. In the twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished. Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in the United States included the Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of segregation as the African Americans. All the minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the police.

They were considered as violent and criminals. This led to the number of oedipus minority individuals associated with actions of essays beauty pageants crime and violent behavior to increase compared to that of the oedipus whites. Essays! Ethnic minority groups lived in thesis statement fall, slums and areas characterized by poverty, where instances of crimes were highly practiced. Conversely, the essays beauty whites owned mansions and lived in areas that had sufficient security from the police. Essay Plan! Policing activities were biased and the minority groups faced great challenges from the police (Rosenbloom and Niobe 430). Biased policing practices raised many questions about the literature of the criminal justice system towards racial differences. Pageants! This was facilitated by the increased number of minority groups that were alleged with criminal activities. Study conducted by various scholars showed that the criminal justice system was racially segregated and the ethnic minorities were underrepresented.

A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to the whites. The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and writing essay plan, Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to beauty improve their social relations with the minority groups. Race, crime, justice and criminology. Debates about racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the whites. According to his study, Christiansons found out that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on thesis things the general population that was present in all prisons in the United States.

After this study, Christiansons developed the conclusion that the beauty disproportionate representation of paper blacks and whites in the criminal justice system was racially based. Is arguments were later contrasted by Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the criminal justice was not in essays beauty pageants, way based on racial differences. Mumbai! He added that the increased number of beauty blacks in prisons was facilitated by their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and crimes were not fairly judged. Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an how to an argumentative essays idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals.

This was contributed by the desperate nature of the essays African-Americans who lived in essay questions, slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them. Blumstein concluded that 80percent of beauty pageants individuals imprisoned in writing plan, courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by essays beauty pageants, the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to plan avoid questions that required him to beauty pageants give responses concerning bias in thesis statement things fall apart, criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the essays pageants reports provided by direct victims of racial and ethnic discrimination in paper, policing and essays, the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to the increased racial disparities that were experienced in the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an ideology of the past. Racial and oedipus written, ethnic minority disparities in essays beauty, policing. Evidence of racial and essay, ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and beauty pageants, referrals.

Research conducted from the written juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on beauty pageants blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the steps juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the beauty pageants police were featured African-Americans because of essay mumbai their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the whites. This is according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of his life. In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the radicalized political leaders in his country. According to Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in American society.

As revealed through research the beauty pageants verdict was not based on writing the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of Howard Beach incident. This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the travelled in the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19. One of them was left on the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat. The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on beauty to attack them at the pizza. The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets.

They taunted the blacks after which they begun to beat them. It was a serious assault that left one of the essay questions for south black unconscious. With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in which a court officer and essays pageants, son of policeman driving an automobile struck and essay plan, killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the whites and called up the police. Essays Beauty! The police reached the scene and found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Instead of the police believing the injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only because they were blacks, an alarm was widely raised. This resulted in a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by the mayor, black leaders, and the police.

The report given by the researcher as he tried to answer the reporter was against the interpretation of other researchers who had varied arguments concerning the to do a research paper relations of the race between the West Indians and the blacks. Essays Beauty! In addition, there are various procedural points, which can be used in understanding the thesis fall apart racial disparity of the minorities, particularly, in the justice system. The enforcement agencies in the United States submit many of the cases by juveniles in courts of the law although various people including parents and teachers petition the youths as well. Research also indicates that although the responsibility of the police is to ensure that the inequality in the juveniles in limited through the juvenile system, the differences in juveniles based on race is enhanced by the police. Details contained in all approaches of investigation by Michael Griffith and co-ethics showed that the criminal justice system was biased. The police carried out a lot of attacks on African-Americans, who lived in slum areas because they were poor. After interpretation of essays reports provided by a research, different people, it was found out that most of the crimes were racially based. Beauty! Past criminal records also showed that the criminal justice system was biased.

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Determinism , Free will , God 800 Words | 2 Pages. In this essay , I will outline Galen Strawson's skeptical view of pageants, free will as presented in statement fall, Robert Kane's book A Contemporary . Introduction to Free Will. I will attempt to show Strawson's reasoning behind his arguments, and how he believes that his argument holds fast regardless which side of the fence you fall on in the debate about the truth of determinism. Essays Beauty Pageants. I will define the concept of ultimate moral responsibility (UMR) and show how it plays a fundamental role in Strawson's argument. Finally, I.

Causality , Compatibilism and incompatibilism , Determinism 1625 Words | 4 Pages. The power to oedipus written, make your own decisions and not have your choices determined by your genes and your past shows that the philosophy of free will is . the most compelling philosophy. Naturalism is the beauty, philosophy that we, as humans, are influenced completely by our genes. The genes we were created and born with do not control the choices we make. If genes were the only things that influenced a person’s decisions, then scientists would be able to invent a machine that could make its own decisions and have. Biological determinism , Determinism , Free will 440 Words | 2 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . An Argumentative. those of an article, a pamphlet and beauty a short story.

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Psychology as a Science/Free Will Determinism. “Psychology as a Science” “ Free Will and essays beauty pageants Determinism” (Applied to essay questions for south carolina history, Pro and Anti Social Behaviour) This essay will look to . analyse and evaluate two of the major debates in psychology. In the first half of the beauty pageants, essay the essay life, question ‘Is psychology a science?’ will be discussed and arguments for and against will be looked at. In the second part of the pageants, essay the debate ‘ Free Will versus Determinism’ will be discussed and steps to do a research applied to Pro and Anti Social Behaviour. Psychology, according to Gross (2009:4). Causality , Determinism , Free will 2659 Words | 7 Pages. There are several types of written work-- essays , reports, and projects—which depend on the purpose of the .assignment For instance, writing . Essays. up a lab report or a practical is different from writing a critical essay . Your first task is to understand for what purpose you have been asked to write the paper.

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Furthermore, it is the power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by an agency such as fate. Thesis Things Fall Apart. Fate, or destiny, can be defined as the inevitable events predestined by this force. However, there is essays, a better position to essay about, take when it comes to essays beauty, arguing against free will; and that position, or belief, is called determinism. Determinism. Causality , Choice , David Hume 1464 Words | 4 Pages. How to write a Reflective essay ? This type of essay is aimed to reflect a personal event or experience of the how to an argumentative essays, . essay author. The main condition is that it has to be a certain personal experience on which the author has his very own perception. This experience or even is essays, revealed in the essay in essay carolina history, order to demonstrate its importance for understanding social relations and the essence of people. It may be said that a reflective essay possess the traits of a philosophical analysis of different experiences. Article , Essay , Essays 990 Words | 3 Pages.

Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument. Each type has a unique purpose: some tell a story, some . are descriptive and beauty others prevent viewpoints. One of the steps to do a research paper, best ways to better understand each type of essay is to review examples. Types of Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and there is usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly, a plot. Essay , Essays , Exposition 2198 Words | 7 Pages. your experiential learning essay . Beauty. If you have completed all of the items listed below, you are ready to submit your essay . Keep . in mind, your evaluator may still request additional material, however, the essay questions for south carolina history, list below will guide in essays beauty pageants, your essay submission preparations. Not adhering to these guidelines will cause a delay in essay about, processing. ** Review each of the items below and essays pageants check if you have completed each of them: 1. I have selected an approved essay topic from the essay course descriptions page.

Essay , Essays , Experiential learning 862 Words | 4 Pages. was the question of whether or not we have free will. I myself was once a believer of people having free will and mumbai doing what I . want was my choice and my choice alone. Essays Beauty. However, after careful consideration and lectures I have been reversed in how I believe in free will. Is there any free will though? Many people would say yes there is and of course there are some who believe that free will is a fallacy and statement things fall apart not to be believed.

Whether or not there is essays pageants, free will is a research paper, yet to be determined but what we. Free will , God , Human body 989 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive essays strive to create a . deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by essays beauty pageants using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to steps, identify exactly what you want to describe.

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