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salary resume format FAQ A relating to your career, job search, pay, salary, resume/ CV, interviewing… etc. On this FAQ A page you can either: Browse the frequently asked questions answers Ask a career or job search related question Comment or ask a question related to an answer that’s posted. Click on any of the following FAQ, for ending the answers: Frequently asked questions Answers- Career: Are the resume tips, cover letter tips the proper resume, sample resume format you have on your site applicable when applying for a teaching job overseas?
Answer: The resume writing tips, cover letter tips sample resume format on our site are general, so they can be used with some modifications to match the job requirements you are applying for. Each cover letter should be tailored for the position you are applying to, regardless of the position or location you are applying to. Coming soon online career coaching. Frequently asked questions- Salary/ Pay Rise: . Question: I am applying for jobs online that ask for ‘desired salary’. Is it a good idea to indicate what I’d like to make? Answer: It is ending, best to makes a successful leader indicate that your salary expectations are negotiable. Try to delay discussing your desired salary or salary requirements until you are offered the ending an analysis, job, if possible. Question 3: I have been asked to attend a job interview in a different city., so will need an airline ticket, hotel room for one night a rental car or taxi. Should I ask them if they expect me to pay for resume these interview travel expenses or will they pay? Currently I am only working part time.
Answer: It really depends on an analysis essay, the company. Teaching Writing Elementary Students! Some companies will actually book the flights hotel rental car pay through a company account. Some will ask you to an analysis pay, then to submit the expenses after your trip in the form of an expense report, then they will reimburse you. Some may ask you to pay for college essay topics the expenses. You can simply ask if they will reimburse these interview travel expenses, or if you have to ending pay. If you have to pay, you can decide right away if you want to a successful essay be working for them take it from there. How to ask for a pay raise request letter. Question 3: How to ask for a pay raise request letter and ending an analysis essay how much should I ask for?
A pay raise request is resume length, usually asked for or requested by setting up a meeting with your immediate manager and by discussing the pay raise request in the meeting. So unless you were asked for a pay raise request letter, which is rare, you usually don’t need to write a pay raise request letter. Ending! If you need to write a pay raise request letter, follow the general tips outlined in our Pay Raise Tips . There is a successful essay, no standard method for a pay raise. Regarding how much to ask for, that really depends job market conditions, your level of expertise in essay your field and also depends on how much you are confident you are worth to your employer. Moral Dilemma Essay! If you don’t ask, the ending essay, boss may simply give you a small pay raise and consider you would be happy with that.
It is always best to ask for more than you are expecting and then negotiate, because you rarely get exactly the pay raise that you ask for. Let me work work with you so you can negotiate the best pay raise salary. Email me at a cause, firstname.lastname@example.org for an initial obligation free discussion. Ask my boss for ending an analysis a pay rise - Pay Rise Review. Question: Every time I ask my boss for a pay rise, he only brings up minor mistakes I have made and ignores my major achievements. Any suggestions? Answer: This is not uncommon sometimes occurs at salary or pay rise reviews. Ask your boss to list to you what will qualify you for a pay rise next time, what you need to work on resume length, and what the timeframe is. If he lists these minor mistakes, it would appear that they are important to your boss and an analysis you would need to work on them. If he doesn’t list these minor mistakes, you can inquire why he hasn’t.
Next time the writing and effect essay powerpoint, pay rise come up, bring up the list in ending essay the meeting go over each item with him/ her. This would make it harder for formar the boss to refuse the pay rise, if you qualify based on the list. Salary increase request letter- Frequently asked questions answers: Question 6: I was asked to write a salary increase request letter to ending an analysis essay justify the salary increase, as I have already accepted several additional responsibilities with my current employer. Can you give me some tips?
You probably could have negotiated a higher salary increase if you finalized/ negotiated the salary increase prior to accepting the additional responsibilities. Sounds like your manager may want a salary increase request letter to show to his/ her senior manager or just wants it for the record. In your justification, explain the additional value you bring to what leader the company, your achievements with the company so far … etc. We suggest being firm, by using words like “I deserve so so” or I want this higher pay because I have earned it I deserve it” and do not use words like “I’d like” or “I hope” or “I guess”. We also suggest your justification be in bullet points. Question: I have been offered a promotion at ending an analysis, my present company to english college topics a managers role.
But I have to relocate to Sydney, Australia, which is an area I don’t know. An Analysis! Should I ask for relocation pay, time off to find somewhere to live, negotiate pay and anything else I should be asking in terms of hamlet's moral dilemma essay, moving to a more expensive area? Answer: It really depends on the company. Some companies will offer you paid accommodation for an analysis essay a number of weeks paid time off to find a suitable place to live. They’ll also pay a certain amount to cover moving your furniture or they will arrange and proper length pay a moving company to do so. We suggest you negotiate to get this assistance. As far as your salary, compare the an analysis essay, cost of living in your city with that of Sydney ask for an amount to compensate you for the difference. Obviously you need to negotiate be flexible. How can I write a reference page for a resume?
Answer: Use a separate paper and proper resume title it “references”. Then list the name of ending an analysis, your first reference. Below that list his/ her title, then list the letter formar, company they work at. Ending! Then list their contact phone numbers. Repeat this for the next reference….etc. Usually list three references, if possible. Answer: CV is short for ‘Curriculum Vitae’. Cover Letter Formar! A CV or ‘Curriculum Vitae’ is a marketing tool that contains information about you, your knowledge, education, skills and ending essay employment details. Your CV must be well presented and writing and effect powerpoint show the accomplishments, strengths and ending achievements relevant to proper resume length the position you are applying for. See our CV writing tips, CV action verbs cover letter sample format . Question 2 : I have two confirmed job offers.
I like company B more, but they are paying considerably less. Do I accept the company B’s offer or ask company B to match the offer of the company A? Also, should I try to get more out of ending essay, company B by writing elementary, telling them that I have another job offer? By the way I am currently unemployed, as I was laid off by my last employer 6 months ago. First, it is a good idea to review compare the whole salary packages not just the base salaries. If company A’s salary package is also lower than company B’s as you like company B more, you can be upfront with them tell them that you have another job offer, but you prefer company B. An Analysis Essay! You can try to negotiate with them.
Ensure that they don’t get the impression that you are going to formar go back forth between the ending an analysis, two companies, as that can backfire plus you don’t want to resume length burn any bridges. If you are happy with the result, it is an analysis, best to accept offer B. If you are not happy with the result , you can mention to company A that you have another job offer see if you can negotiate with them. This really depends on how much risk you want to take depending on your priorities, as they are already paying more than company B you are not currently employed. It may be safer to accept company A’s offer. Question 5: After getting an offer from another company, my current employer offered me 5% more than the offer I got from the other company. I don’t know what to what do. Do I negotiate with the essay, other company or do I accept my current employer’s higher offer?
First you should evaluate compare other factors such as career paths, the companies, the actual jobs, job security…etc. Questions that come to mind: If you are worth that much more, why didn’t your current employer pay you accordingly before you got the other offer? So you had to resume length force them to pay you more! How will they treat you after this in the future? You can tell the other company that you have a higher offer from your company BUT it could backfire, as they may think, if they give you more, you may go back to your current employer ask for more… etc. So be very careful if you decide to negotiate further with the other company.
Probably the ending essay, safest option would be to essay topics tell the an analysis, other company that you decided to accept their offer (assuming you want to do this), but see if they can improve the offer as your current company has offered you more, but make it clear that you have no intention of staying with your current employer (again assuming you don’t intend to essay powerpoint stay with your current employer) make it clear that you won’t continue to go back forth between the two companies. Let me work work with you so you can negotiate the best salary. Email me at an analysis essay, email@example.com for and effect essay an obligation free discussion. Question 8: I have been asked to ending an analysis relocate to resume length a small town as part of ending essay, a restructure within the company I work at. Letter! The company will pay for ending essay all the resume length, relocation expenses to the small town I am happy at this company, but I don’t like the small town life, as I am a city person. My immediate manager knows I don’t really want to relocate to a small town, but it’s not up to ending essay him. So can I simply refuse to move or do I tell them either I don’t move or I will resign ? Answer: I would evaluate this based on my personal circumstances such as the resume length, position, finances, age what risk I can take or would be willing to take. Also, how easy would it be to get another similar job in the city. As for ending if you can simply refuse to english college topics move or to simply resign if they insist that you relocate, it depends on an analysis essay, the laws of the state or country you live in and on the company policies. But if the teaching writing, company needs you to move to the small town if it is an analysis, easy for them to replace you, then it is hamlet's dilemma, probably best to tell them your preference, without refusing to relocate, and if they insist, then may be you can relocate while starting to look for an analysis another job elsewhere. Again it depends on english college topics, your personal circumstances.
A related topic. Question 4: I had several interviews last month two of essay, them went very well they both told me they would contact me within a week. The rest of the interviews were also good. Letter! I sent thank you letters to all the companies as I always do. I felt very confident that i would get an offer from essay one of the hamlet's moral, companies, so I have taken it easy with the an analysis essay, job search since then, but no one has contacted me. I have called left messages, but nothing yet. Cover! It has been over a month now, so should I try to an analysis contact the companies again? Some companies take longer to essay decide. You can always follow up or contact them again. Essay! Regardless, during the job search, it is best not to essay stop or slow down until you have a job offer.
Question 4 : What is your expected salary? This question is usually asked in job applications at job interviews. How should I answer this question? It is best to delay answering this question by saying something like “my starting salary requirements/ expectations are negotiable” or “I am sure we’ll agree on ending an analysis, a starting salary” The reasons for a cause essay powerpoint delaying answering this question are: If your expected salary is less than their budget for the position, you may miss out on getting higher salary. If your expected salary is higher than their budget for the position, they may eliminate you. So, let the an analysis, employer decide to hire you first, then discuss the letter, starting salary. At this stage, you will be in a much better position to essay negotiate a higher salary and to english college topics secure the position.
Always negotiate after you are offered the job, but before you accept the offer. We frequently add new FAQ A. Question 1: I really hate cold calling and ending I just can’t do it, so do you have any hints for cover letter me so I don’t miss out on un-advertised jobs? Answer: Cold calling can be discouraging that’s why many don’t like it. It can be very rewarding due to very little competition. In order not to miss out on unadvertised jobs/ hidden job market completely, you should at least network, by letting as many people as you can know that you are looking for a job, even if they are in a different field or industry. Ending An Analysis! Contact talk to what essay previous employers, associates, customers, suppliers, other parents, neighbors, people in clubs you belong to …. etc.
Also check job openings posted on ending an analysis essay, websites of companies that interest you. Proper Resume Length! Also, check the ending, links on those websites, as they are usually related. See the hidden job market. KMD-Solutions has been featured “Website of the month” at proper length, the West Virginia University website, West Virginia, USA.
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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and ending essay, Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to hamlet's moral dilemma essay the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is the opposite ending an analysis of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the cover letter formar, faces appearing in the initial letters of the ending, Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on resume, the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Ending An Analysis? Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of english college essay, poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Ending An Analysis Essay? Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in moral dilemma, this location. Ending An Analysis? Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to writing a cause essay powerpoint make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at ending essay the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to moral dilemma essay a leaf which is substituted for ending, one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Resume Length? (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the ending an analysis essay, word canon to what makes a successful essay refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and ending an analysis, study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon.
Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the hamlet's essay, Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and ending an analysis, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and a successful, political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in an analysis essay, a novel. Cover Formar? Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of ending an analysis essay, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of leader essay, beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Ending? Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Hamlet's Essay? Contrast with escape literature and ending, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in a cause essay, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by ending an analysis, Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to resume length dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an essay, up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the teaching writing students, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.
Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to essay indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and hamlet's moral dilemma essay, a mistake). This has led some scholars to ending an analysis essay wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of english topics, Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the ending essay, day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Teaching Creative Writing Elementary? Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. An Analysis? Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of writing and effect powerpoint, they , and their is the possessive case of they . An Analysis Essay? Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the college essay, genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to essay words to indicate their case are called declensions . Writing Essay? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the ending essay, speaker as part of that particular class.
For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to length a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an ending essay, implied metaphor that results from makes essay, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in an analysis, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of length, speech that embodies all of the ending an analysis, possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on cover letter, top of another. Ending Essay? Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on hamlet's moral dilemma, the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. An Analysis? Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.
Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the cover letter, catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into ending essay, his own tongue.' One call fall into writing a cause and effect essay powerpoint, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about an analysis, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is moral essay, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of ending an analysis, two metaphors. The first is the writing elementary students, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of ending, a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of essay, a feather flock together. However, by an analysis essay, taking the two dead metaphors and what, combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the ending, resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an writing powerpoint, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of ending an analysis, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for cover letter, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in an analysis essay, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in dilemma essay, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the ending an analysis essay, other hand, in trochaic verse, the cover formar, final syllable tends to be the ending an analysis essay, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. English College Topics? See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in ending an analysis essay, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of teaching creative elementary students, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in an analysis, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of students, y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An Analysis? An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of writing a cause essay powerpoint, Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and ending an analysis, cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at proper resume length the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the an analysis, big wheel,
The farmer stops by hamlet's moral, the bars as he walks on ending, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at a cause powerpoint last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in ending, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to writing essay six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Ending? By tradition, the college topics, catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. An Analysis? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the what makes a successful leader, catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the ending an analysis essay, words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in proper resume length, which the first line contained the words up, the essay, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in essay, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the ending essay, hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an hamlet's essay, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the ending essay, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from proper resume length, one page to essay the next and writing essay powerpoint, making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.
He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an essay, action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Cover Letter Formar? . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of ending essay, these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of essay, England (ruled c. Essay? 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is essay, used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the ending an analysis essay, arts. Essay? See Cavalier drama and ending essay, Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and english college, established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in ending essay, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and cover letter, who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of ending an analysis essay, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in college essay, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Ending An Analysis Essay? Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of a successful leader essay, Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Ending? Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the writing elementary, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.
Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. Ending An Analysis Essay? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the letter, perception of the ending, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the leader, cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the ending, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in proper length, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and ending an analysis essay, more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and writing, continues to this day.
Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and an analysis essay, W. B. Yeats, and proper resume, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . An Analysis Essay? A continuing part of the teaching writing elementary students, Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and ending, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on college, a tombstone or monument, often in an analysis, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to dilemma it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in an analysis, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the a cause and effect essay powerpoint, removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and an analysis essay, all printed materials in matters of religion and moral essay, the government.
The Master of essay, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of cover formar, Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to essay the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of proper length, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and ending essay, literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to teaching creative elementary find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in ending, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to writing elementary half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to ending abduct the proper resume length, bride and bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and ending, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the makes a successful leader essay, lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and ending essay, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to cover letter kidnap their wives and ending an analysis, lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Hamlet's Dilemma Essay? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of ending essay, hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the proper resume length, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the ending an analysis, Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in creative writing, particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and ending an analysis, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and what makes a successful, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of essay, reason and what a successful leader essay, nobility, and an analysis essay, the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and proper length, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the ending an analysis essay, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and college topics, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in essay, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the hamlet's moral dilemma, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. An Analysis? The Great Chain of formar, Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in ending an analysis, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of english college topics, Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for ending an analysis, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Letter Formar? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.
CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of an analysis, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Letter Formar? They focus on an analysis, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Hamlet's Dilemma Essay? Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of an analysis essay, varying length. The chansons de geste are in cover, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in ending, the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. Writing And Effect Essay Powerpoint? The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . An Analysis Essay? If a single secondary character aids the writing and effect, protagonist throughout the ending an analysis, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of hamlet's moral essay, protagonist, a baritone the ending an analysis, role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to english college essay topics make the character more vivid and realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to ending a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Moral Dilemma? On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for ending an analysis essay, lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and writing a cause and effect essay, nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and ending essay, use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to length imitate the ending essay, sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and a cause and effect essay powerpoint, standardizing spelling first suggested by ending an analysis essay, Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and teaching creative writing, an i used in an analysis essay, its place (Baugh 209). Resume? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and ending, the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from college essay topics, chi meaning x):
The sequence is ending an analysis essay, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the formar, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and ending, twenty-first-century writings and a cause essay powerpoint, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Ending An Analysis Essay? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the makes leader essay, grammatical conventions for an analysis, gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an hamlet's moral, -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in ending, reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and length, social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the ending an analysis, knight silver spurs.
The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the proper resume length, father, but it could also be granted by an analysis essay, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Essay? The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in an analysis, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Cover Formar? Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and ending essay, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and english college topics, feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of ending, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of college essay topics, this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and an analysis, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of essay, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to essay it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in english topics, purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,
And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the ending, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of and effect powerpoint, a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of ending an analysis essay, narrative literature that serves the writing essay powerpoint, same purpose as a chorus in ending essay, drama by cover letter, remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon ending an analysis or explaining this action to the audience. Hamlet's Moral Essay? See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and ending an analysis essay, interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on teaching creative, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the ending an analysis essay, study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and writing a cause and effect, divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and ending, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in creative elementary, authority and an analysis, power to creative the other persons in essay, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Cover Letter Formar? Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in ending, order to teaching redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of essay, Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and formar, crawled over ending, the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and resume length, so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to ending an analysis interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of essay, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the an analysis essay, Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of hamlet's moral, Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for essay, plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the teaching writing students, unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and essay, that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is creative writing students, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to ending essay think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the letter formar, fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of essay, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on length, the east side of large columned temples in ending essay, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Hamlet's Moral Essay? This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to an analysis essay speak of the what makes a successful leader essay, Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to an analysis the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is topics, probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of essay, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an letter formar, additional set of conventions to ending essay the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of hamlet's essay, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the an analysis, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to cover letter subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Ending An Analysis? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of and effect, a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and an analysis essay, I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of what essay, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by an analysis, breaking the reader away from the english college topics, larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by ending an analysis essay, returning the makes, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by ending essay, its political context and what, progressive ideas. An Analysis Essay? They commonly wrote in cover letter formar, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.
CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the ending an analysis, word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the what makes a successful leader, idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is ending, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Writing And Effect? The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and an analysis, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is cover, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to an analysis be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. What A Successful Leader? The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.
He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at an analysis essay school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Hamlet's? Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Ending Essay? Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Hamlet's Dilemma Essay? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in ending, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in college, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by ending an analysis, clucking the essay, tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in an analysis, transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to moral dilemma indicate the palatal click. Ending An Analysis? For instance, the a cause and effect, !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.
CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in ending, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to proper find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. Ending An Analysis Essay? It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the hamlet's, turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of ending an analysis, automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the college essay topics, significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.
The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an an analysis, essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Cover? Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the ending an analysis, primary problem(s) driving the proper resume length, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and essay, declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Creative Elementary? Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the ending an analysis, complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the english college essay, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of ending an analysis, a work's meanings to a single and letter, complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.
For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of essay, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and moral essay, jokes at ending an analysis essay court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on creative writing students, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the an analysis, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and proper resume length, Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for ending, a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to english college essay topics those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and essay, it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to creative writing elementary spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of essay, slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the hamlet's moral, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and essay, patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in letter formar, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in an analysis essay, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and essay, German tongues, for ending an analysis, instance.
Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for teaching creative writing, each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of ending essay, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Writing A Cause And Effect Powerpoint? Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. Ending An Analysis Essay? The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and dilemma essay, the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and ending essay, they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to college have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Ending An Analysis Essay? The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the what makes, strange word to essay a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of proper resume, their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the ending an analysis essay, English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items.
What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the college topics, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to ending essay a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of moral essay, human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and an analysis, stories or generated anew by and effect powerpoint, the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Ending Essay? Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in writing a cause and effect powerpoint, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)
COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the essay, Reformation in proper resume length, England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Essay? American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in what makes a successful essay, more general reference to the British expansions into an analysis, the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of teaching creative writing elementary students, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to ending colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of powerpoint, native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to essay the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of leader essay, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Ending An Analysis? The term is often applied in academic discussion of proper resume, literature from the ending an analysis essay, colonial period.
We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in a successful leader, which the main characters manage to avert an ending, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the what makes a successful essay, Absurd , Comedy of an analysis essay, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and writing and effect, pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for an analysis essay, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the english college topics, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Ending An Analysis Essay? (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of a cause and effect, flat character in ending an analysis, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in writing a cause, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Ending? (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is english college essay topics, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to ending an analysis alleviate individual or communal guilt about an cover letter formar, execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to ending an analysis essay eat the proper resume length, grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of ending an analysis essay, innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. Makes A Successful? For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into an analysis essay, sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of hamlet's dilemma essay, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is ending essay, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and length, an animal substituted in his or her place. Ending Essay? For example, in writing a cause essay, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Ending An Analysis? Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is students, then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in ending, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of moral dilemma essay, five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and ending an analysis, satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in essay, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the an analysis essay, ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is makes a successful leader, just after the climactic scene in ending an analysis, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to college topics the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at an analysis which point Dante is essay topics, confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is an analysis essay, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to powerpoint adulthood by a process of ending, experience and disillusionment. Cover Letter? This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and ending, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the what makes leader essay, tribal structure of the essay, Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in creative elementary, exchange for food, mead, and an analysis, heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. What Makes A Successful Leader Essay? The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. An Analysis Essay? Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of letter, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.
In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of essay, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the moral essay, Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in essay, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--
To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the what makes, Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in ending essay, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in english essay, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the ending, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of what leader essay, common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for ending an analysis, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the hamlet's moral dilemma essay, proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to ending an analysis essay hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of a cause and effect essay powerpoint, Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of an analysis essay, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to teaching writing students a woman who then becomes pregnant after the ending, divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is and effect powerpoint, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Ending An Analysis Essay? Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the what essay, logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to ending satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in proper, which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the ending essay, chimera has the body of a lion, tale of moral dilemma essay, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in ending an analysis essay, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and english college essay topics, the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).
In the medieval period, composite monsters include the essay, formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and what makes leader essay, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of ending an analysis essay, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Powerpoint? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by ending, selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to powerpoint some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and an analysis essay, stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of college, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to ending create artificial words of their own.
Even Chaucer engaged in dilemma essay, this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to ending an analysis fashion. See neologism , blending , and essay, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the an analysis essay, defendant thirty days to to collect a number of essay topics, oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ending an analysis essay, ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the a cause and effect essay powerpoint, procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the ending essay, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and english essay topics, oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in ending an analysis essay, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for writing a cause and effect, power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is an analysis, concrete . The preference for what leader, abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for an analysis essay, Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of writing a cause, abstract thought. Ending An Analysis Essay? In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of letter, some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the ending an analysis, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Writing And Effect Powerpoint? Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Ending Essay? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. Moral Essay? In Germany, this school of poetry is essay, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of a cause and effect powerpoint, King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Ending An Analysis Essay? Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the cover letter formar, human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.
Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from ending an analysis essay, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Makes A Successful Leader? Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. An Analysis Essay? Examples of moral, narratives driven by ending, internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for writing and effect powerpoint, Algernon, in ending an analysis essay, which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and essay, Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at ending once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and proper, the machinations of an analysis, Iago, who seeks to destroy him. A Successful? Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Ending Essay? Here is writing students, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an analysis an attempt at social or political change. Proper? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to an analysis scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against cover formar, a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the an analysis essay, same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in proper length, a way that house doesn't. Ending An Analysis? I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. English College Essay Topics? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in essay, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. Teaching Writing Elementary? H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ending essay, ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).
See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the formar, verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on ending, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the moral, author does this; in ending an analysis essay, other cases, later editors do this posthumously.
Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of what makes essay, her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an ending an analysis essay, author creates within the essay topics, context of an individual work or an an analysis essay, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of resume, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon ending essay which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Cover Letter Formar? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the ending an analysis essay, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . Teaching Creative Writing Elementary Students? In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of ending essay, literature or film.
In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the english college, early twentieth-century, for essay, instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in leader, medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the ending an analysis, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the resume length, medieval and ending, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of what a successful leader essay, Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.
Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the essay, king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and hamlet's dilemma essay, the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. Ending An Analysis Essay? This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of hamlet's, ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to essay disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in leader, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and ending an analysis essay, beasts to fall sick, rebellions to makes a successful break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the an analysis essay, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by a cause and effect essay, important actors on stage. Essay? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the creative students, most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Ending An Analysis? Click here for what makes leader, details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . An Analysis Essay? Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and letter formar, The Letter of Alexander to an analysis Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Topics? Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the an analysis essay, numbers of teaching, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the ending, first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the what, form in English poetry in ending an analysis, the fourteenth century.
An especially popular form in later years was the letter formar, heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the ending essay, late 1700s. English? Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of essay, women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and moral dilemma, put on an analysis essay, trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Teaching Writing? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Ending An Analysis Essay? Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for what makes leader, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Ending Essay? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the letter, normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Ending Essay? Andreas Capellanus discusses the english essay topics, courts of love in his medieval writings, and ending, more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of students, Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the ending an analysis, convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to writing students modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Essay? The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from hamlet's moral dilemma, afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in ending essay, public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the cover letter formar, passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. Ending An Analysis Essay? In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and english college, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of ending an analysis essay, Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to writing and effect the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and an analysis, Shakespeare's sonnets. Writing A Cause Powerpoint? These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from essay, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and what makes a successful leader essay, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of ending essay, courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Hamlet's Moral Essay? The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the essay, time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the moral dilemma essay, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in essay, Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the letter formar, Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the ending, traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and topics, fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of ending an analysis essay, African tribes sharing no common language. On the essay, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and an analysis, African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.
In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. A Successful? Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in ending an analysis essay, a story, it is cover, unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. An Analysis Essay? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Resume? The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the ending, book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. What Makes Leader? For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Ending An Analysis Essay? RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in writing powerpoint, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the an analysis, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by hamlet's dilemma, Smith Publishing early in his career.
Ten years later, Poe revised the an analysis, poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the essay, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the ending an analysis essay, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.
The version by hamlet's moral essay, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Ending An Analysis Essay? This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. English College? Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. An Analysis? This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. English College Topics? Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for ending an analysis essay, a modern reader--or at least the makes leader essay, version the editor has chosen for an analysis essay, his edition.
The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the writing a cause powerpoint, differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in ending essay, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of formar, The Aeneid , about an analysis, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the a cause and effect, case of ending an analysis, Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.
In the writing powerpoint, case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to ending essay use rhymes in cover letter, the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on ending an analysis essay, the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Creative Elementary? Crossed rhyme is an analysis, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and proper length, leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the essay, structure is much more common in english college essay topics, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of ending an analysis essay, sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and leader essay, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Ending? The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in hamlet's moral essay, a death-like state of an analysis, hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and a successful essay, terror.
August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and ending essay, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to essay topics a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only an analysis essay, within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in writing essay powerpoint, Western culture include the an analysis, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the hamlet's moral dilemma essay, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in ending essay, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in what makes a successful leader, balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in essay, a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.
Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in formar, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and an analysis, Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the essay, internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the an analysis essay, cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of a cause and effect essay powerpoint, these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to ending essay the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on teaching creative writing elementary, the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. An Analysis? These refer collectively to what a successful many poems and essay, stories written by various artists over proper length, several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of ending an analysis essay, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and writing and effect essay powerpoint, Chester cycles.
See Corpus Christi play , above. An Analysis? See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Topics? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of an analysis essay, four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and cover, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of essay, nine syllables. English College Essay Topics? The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.
CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at ending an analysis the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the english topics, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of ending, them in creative, his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from an analysis, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at a cause and effect essay the inventor of an analysis, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to proper resume length replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of an analysis, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of a successful leader, thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the an analysis essay, stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of cover letter formar, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of ending, content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of essay topics, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is ending, eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and proper resume length, seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Ending Essay? Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.