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Recovery and Staying Well - Anxiety …
Association of American Colleges Universities. Home About About AACU Mission Statement Strategic Plan Goals History Centennial Official Statements Partnerships Membership Join AACU Member Institutions Member Benefits Create or Manage Your Account Leadership and Staff Board of Directors President Lynn Pasquerella Senior Staff Staff Directory Getting Involved Join Email List Become an Associate Donate to AACU Job Openings Meetings. Recovery Depression. A new VALUE report describes its groundbreaking approach to assessing student learning showing it is possible to essay project evaluate undergraduate. Select any filter and click on Apply to see results. Research on Adult Learners: Supporting the Needs of a Student Population that Is No Longer Nontraditional. Recovery Depression. Adult students have been a growing presence on livres college campuses during recent decades and recovery, there are numerous indicators that these students, often referred to as “nontraditional,” constitute a significant proportion of the undergraduate student body. Labor. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) data indicate that 38 percent of the 2007 enrollment of more than eighteen million college students were twenty-five years of recovery depression age or older (NCES 2009). NCES projections of higher education enrollment from 2007–2018 suggest that the number of students over twenty-five will remain stable or increase during the current decade (Hussar and Bailey 2009). Although the focus of dufresne this issue of Peer Review and depression, the remainder of this article will be on adults beginning or continuing their enrollment as college students at a later-than-typical age, a 2002 NCES report has frequently been cited as noting that when the term “nontraditional student” is defined more broadly to include seven characteristics not typically associated with participation in labor college, a full 73 percent of students may be viewed as nontraditional (Choy 2002, 1).
These characteristics include. entry to college delayed by at least one year following high school, having dependents, being a single parent, being employed full time, being financially independent, attending part time, and not having a high school diploma. K. Recovery Depression. Patricia Cross referred to some of the same student groups using the term “non-traditional” some twenty years ago (Cross 1981). The social and economic forces that have led to adults’ increased participation of in higher education in the decades since Cross used this term are not likely to abate in andy the near future. These influences include an aging and increasingly diverse population, the rapid pace of technological change, and the constantly shifting demands of the workplace in this era of a global economy. Recovery Depression. Adult learners who experience academic success in higher education tend to gain economic and personal benefits, which most likely provide social, political, and economic benefits for the broader society (Ritt 2008).
Multiple Roles of Adult Learners. A key characteristic distinguishing reentry adults from other college students is the high likelihood that they are juggling other life roles while attending school, including those of system worker, spouse or partner, parent, caregiver, and community member. These roles may be assets, both through the depression social supports they provide and through the rich life experiences that may help adult learners make meaning of theoretical constructs that may be purely abstract to younger learners. Yet more often, these multiple roles present challenges in students’ allocation of time for both academic study and participation in campus-based organizations and activities. A 2003 NCES report titled Work First, Study Second indicated that at least 56 percent of livres et resume students over age twenty-four who were included in the 1999–2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study saw themselves as workers first and students second, while 26 percent identified themselves as students who work. Only 18 percent did not work while enrolled (Berker and Horn 2003, 5). This report also noted that those students who considered themselves employees first were also more likely to recovery be married, leaving them with at least three life roles to manage while attending school; this group was also less likely to complete a degree in six years. Programmatic Responses to livres Adult Learners.
Reentry adults’ multiple roles and commitments increase the likelihood they will look for degree and certificate programs that provide them flexibility in time and locations for recovery both course completion and for access to key student services. Andy Redemption. In recent decades, a number of institutions have been designed around the needs of recovery depression adult students, such as Empire State University, Fielding Institute, Regis University, and, more recently, the University of uk education Phoenix and many other institutions in the for-profit sector. Within the last decade, institutions and programs geared toward serving adult students have been profiled in a number of sources, including Lifelong Learning at Its Best: Innovative Practices in Adult Credit Programs (Maehl 2000) and volumes of depression New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, including one on accelerated learning (Wlodkowski and Kasworm 2003) and another on adult degree programs (Papas and andy dufresne, Jerman 2004). The innovative student support and learning strategies described in these sources are rarely found in traditional university programs, but could provide useful models for recovery depression adaptation. One example of this type of program is Empire State’s faculty mentor model, which allows students to develop highly individualized programs of study. Nike Essays. Other innovative adult learning practices—such as distance learning, accelerated course formats, and prior learning assessment—were previously uncommon in mainstream institutions or departments, but are increasingly commonplace today in traditional universities that range from recovery depression small liberal arts institutions to nike and child labor large comprehensive and recovery depression, doctoral institutions.
NCES reported in 2008 that at least two-thirds of two-year and four-year Title IV degree-granting institutions offered online courses, blended/hybrid courses, or courses offered in other distance education formats for livres college-level credit (Parsad and Lewis 2008). The report, titled Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-2007, indicates that online courses were offered by 61 percent of institutions, blended/hybrid courses at 35 percent of institutions and other forms of recovery distance education were offered at 26 percent of institutions. Thirty-two percent of all two-year and four-year institutions reported offering college-level degree or certificate programs delivered totally through distance education. The factor most commonly cited as affecting the decision to offer distance education courses or programs was meeting student demand for flexible schedules, as reported by american essay project 68 percent of responding institutions . Nearly two-thirds of institutions reported an interest in depression providing access to college for students who do not otherwise have access; only 45 percent of institutions reported an interest in increasing student enrollment as a key factor (Parsad and hydrogen essay, Lewis 2008). Prior Learning Assessment. A 2006 study by the Council on Adult Experiential Learning (CAEL) on the use of assessment of prior college-level learning as a means of acquiring college credit found that 87 percent of responding institutions accepted College-Level Examination Program (CLEP) exams, 84 percent accepted Advanced Placement credits, 70 percent accepted credit for corporate or military training (evaluated by the American Council on Education), and recovery depression, 66 percent made provisions for faculty evaluation of student portfolios demonstrating prior college level learning (Klein-Collins and Hein 2009, 187). While portfolio evaluation was not the most common form of prior learning assessment (PLA), an increase in acceptance of this method can be seen when compared to previous studies conducted by veteran essay project CAEL in 1996 (when 55 percent of institutions reported use of portfolios) and in 1991 (when 50 percent of recovery institutions reported use) (Klein-Collins and Hein 2009, 188).
A more recent CAEL report, Fueling the Race to Postsecondary Success: A 48-Instution Study of thesis arthritis Prior Learning Assessment and Adult Student Outcomes (Klein-Collins 2010), addresses faculty concerns about adult students getting “credit for life experience” by focusing on a study conducted by CAEL on student outcomes. Based on over 62,000 academic records of adult students from a geographically diverse institutional sample from forty-six percent public institutions, the study showed that 50 percent private of nonprofit institutions and 4 percent of for-profit institutions describe several positive outcomes for students who earned credit through prior learning assessment, when compared with students who did not make use of PLA (6–7, 12). Adult students who earned credit for prior learning were more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree within seven years—43 percent—in comparison to 15 percent of depression non-PLA students (7). Focusing only on the approximately 50 percent of students who matriculated in pursuit of uk education a bachelor’s degree, the study found that 58 percent of recovery depression PLA students were successful in achieving that goal, compared to only 27 percent of non-PLA students (35). Differences in hydrogen essay degree completion between PLA and recovery, non-PLA students were also found when controlling for GPA—66 percent of PLA students with GPAs of 3.0 or above completed degrees, compared to 35 percent of non-PLA students with similar GPAs (37). Furthermore, dramatic differences in graduation rates were reported between PLA and non-PLA students for both Hispanic and black students, with 40 percent of black PLA students completing bachelor’s degrees compared to 17 percent of and child labor essays black non-PLA students, and recovery depression, 47 percent of arthritis Hispanic PLA students completing bachelor’s degrees compared to 6 percent of Hispanic non-PLA students (50). These CAEL report findings suggest that providing opportunities for prior learning assessment may have a substantial effect on adult student persistence. Depression. Accelerated Course Formats. Courses, certificates, and degrees designed to be completed in a shorter time frame and in which either course duration or contact hours may be modified are learning formats that tend to be more responsive to adult learners’ lives (Wlodkowski 2003). Although these intensive learning experiences are sometimes criticized as formats that prioritize convenience over rigor and sacrifice breadth and depth, a number of studies indicate that adult learning in accelerated courses is comparable to or better than that of younger students enrolled in conventional courses.
For instance, Wlodkowski reports a qualitative study indicating that intensive courses “became rewarding and powerful learning experiences when certain attributes were present…These attributes included instructor enthusiasm and expertise (usually gained through experience), active learning, classroom interaction, good course organization, student input, a collegial classroom atmosphere, and a relaxed environment” (9) When adult students in accelerated courses are compared with younger students in conventional versions of the same types of courses, both groups of students generally have shown positive and similar attitudes toward their courses. Finally, when attitudes of alumni toward accelerated courses in management, human resource management, and corporate finance were assessed, their perceptions were nearly as positive as current students who responded to the same survey (10). Theories of Adult Learning. While much of what is written about adapting to adult learners within higher education focuses on ways in which institutions and programs can modify student services and course delivery formats and systems to accommodate the needs of reentry students, adult education research also provides insight into understanding the characteristics of these learners within the classroom or distance education environment (Ross-Gordon 2003). Nike And Child. Frameworks for Understanding Adult Learning. In recent decades, several theoretical approaches to adult learning have served as useful lenses for depression research on adult learners; these frameworks help researchers think about andy shawshank redemption, practices across various contexts of adult learning, including the college classroom. Andragogy is arguably the depression best-known of these theoretical approaches. Malcolm Knowles is credited with bringing this framework to attention in North America, although he acknowledged its previous European origins (Knowles 1980). According to this framework, adults are assumed to. prefer self-direction in learning, bring a vast reservoir of experience that should be considered in uk education system planning learning experience, exhibit a readiness to depression learn that is based on a need to know something or do something, exhibit an orientation to learning that is task- or problem-centered rather than subject-centered, and exhibit a relatively high degree of internal motivation.
While andragogy has been widely debated by scholars, who note the hydrogen essay situational variables that influence the recovery degree to which adults exhibit these characteristics, this framework is one of the most enduring and widely cited theories of adult learning (Merriam 2001). Other adult learning theories center on dufresne self-directed learning (SDL), a key assumption of andragogy and itself the focus of depression numerous professional conferences and papers. One SDL theory posited that educational goals within formal education could be supported by using teaching methods and assignments designed to hydrogen essay increase learner control of the learning process relative to that of recovery instructors (Candy 1991). Essay System. Other theories suggest that self-directed learning can be situational and may be exhibited at different levels among college students of various ages as they encounter different learning environments (Grow 1991). In the past twenty years, transformative learning (TL) has become one of the most prominent and debated theories in depression adult learning research, with the version of TL proposed by Jack Mezirow (2000) receiving perhaps the greatest attention. Mezirow and others view transformational learning as involving fundamental transformation of the et resume adults’ core frames of reference, often in response to disorienting dilemmas—situations that challenge adults’ previous ways of thinking about the world and prompt them to reflect critically on previously held assumptions. While much of the research on transformational learned has focused on TL that occurs both in higher education and naturally as an outgrowth of adult life situations, some have also proposed that educators can help stimulate transformative learning by using teaching methods that foster critical reflection (Cranton 1994).
Research on Adult Learners in College Classrooms. A number of studies have explored the characteristics of recovery depression adult learners in the college classroom, providing substantial but not unqualified support for the assumptions linked to the theoretical frameworks of adult learning and development described above. My own chapter in a 2003 volume of New Directions for essays Student Services focusing on the needs of adult students reviews in greater detail than possible here the numerous studies that substantiate adult students’ preferences for recovery depression active learning strategies that support cognitive growth and essay, transformational learning, along with their desires for immediate application of knowledge and opportunities for self-direction. Yet, this same body of research also points to the lack of depression self-confidence often exhibited by adults upon reentry to college and their frequent desire for highly structured learning experiences that provide a clear roadmap of veteran essay project teacher expectations This body of research suggests that while adult learners desire flexibility, they also often desire structure. They also exhibit varied learning styles and preferences influenced in part by their past encounters with higher education as well as by their social and cultural backgrounds, and recovery depression, are best not seen as a monolithic group. This is especially true when considering subpopulations of adult learners who have not consistently been included in about the large body of literature on adult students, including students of color (Ross-Gordon 2005), veterans (Rumann and recovery, Hamrick 2010), and adults with disabilities (Rocco 2001). Thesis About. “Reentry adults” appear to be a student population that is here to stay.
Increasingly, higher education institutions have attempted to create programs and services that are responsive to adults’ life and learning preferences. This effort has challenged college faculty and administrators to think beyond traditional ways of teaching and delivering educational programs. A large number of institutions or program units have a long history of recovery depression adaptation to the adult learner student population. For other institutions or programs this effort is et resume more recent. Yet much can be learned from existing program’s experiences with various modes of distance learning, prior learning assessment, and intensive courses, some of which are profiled in other articles within this issue. Faculty can play an important role as change agents in creating supportive learning environments for depression adult learners both by incorporating theory and nike, research on adult learners into their own classrooms and by advocating for adult-oriented programs and services on their campuses (Blair 2010). The design and delivery of these programs are key to successful undergraduate experiences for reentry adult students.
Berker, Ali, and recovery depression, Laura Horn. 2003. Adult Undergraduates Who Combine Employment and livres, Postsecondary Enrollment. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Recovery. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003167. Blair, Anthony. About. 2010. “In From the Margins: The Essential Role of Faculty in Transforming a Professional Studies Unit into an Academic Department.” Journal of Continuing Higher Education 58(1): 31-39. Candy, Philip.
C. 1991. Self-direction for Lifelong Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Choy, Susan. Recovery Depression. 2002. Findings from the about Condition of Education 2002: Nontraditional Undergraduates. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2002/analyses/nontraditional/index.asp. Cranton, Patricia. 1994. Understanding and depression, Promoting Transformative Learning.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cross, K. Patricia. 1981. Adults as Learners: Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Grow, Gerald.1991. “Teaching Learners to Be Self-Directed: A Stage Approach.” Adult Education Quarterly 44 (2): 109–114. Hussar, W., and T. M. Bailey.
2009. And Child. Projections of Education Statistics to 2018. Table 3: Actual and Middle Alternative Projected Numbers for College Enrollment Rates, by Sex, Attendance Status, and depression, Age: Fall 2007, 2013, and 2018. American Veteran Essay Project. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/projections/projections2018/. Klein-Collins, Becky, and Patrick Hein.
2009. Recovery. “Prior Learning Assessment: How Institutions Use portfolio Assessments.” The Journal of Continuing Higher Education 57: 187–189. Klein-Collins, Rebecca. 2010. About. Fueling the Race to Postsecondary Success: A 48-Institution Study of a Prior Learning Assessment and Adult Learner Outcomes. Chicago: Council for Adult and recovery, Experiential Education. http://www.cael.org/pla.htm. Knowles, Malcolm S. 1980. The Modern Practice of essay system Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge Books.
Maehl, William. 2000. Lifelong Learning at its Best: Innovative Practices in Adult Credit Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Recovery. Merriam, Sharan B. 2001. “Andragogy and Self-directed Learning: Pillars of essay uk education Adult Learning Theory.” In The New Update on Adult Learning Theory: New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education no.89, edited by Sharan B. Recovery Depression. Merriman, 3-13.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mezirow, Jack D., and Associates. Livres. 2000. Recovery. Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on uk education a Theory in Progress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. National Center for Education Statistics. 2009. Digest of Educational Statistics 2009. Table 192. Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions by control and type of recovery institution, age, and andy shawshank essay, attendance status of student: 2007). http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_192.asp?referrer=list.
Pappas, James, and Jerry Jerman, eds. 2004. Developing and Delivering Adult Degree Programs: New Directions for Adult and depression, Continuing Education no. 103. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Parsad, Basmat, and Laurie Lewis. 2008. Distance Education at Degree-granting Postsecondary Institutions: 2006–07. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2009044. Ritt, Elizabeth.
2008. “Redefining Tradition: Adult Learners and Higher Education.” Adult Learning 19 (1/2): 12–16. Rocco, Tonette. 2001. “Helping Adult Educators Understand Disability Disclosure.” Adult Learning 12 (2): 10–12. Ross-Gordon, Jovita M. 2003. Dufresne. “Adult Learners in the Classroom.” In “Meeting the Special Needs of Adult Students,” edited by Deborah Kilgore and Penny J. Rice, special issue, New Directions for Adult and recovery, Continuing Education 102: 43–52. ------ 2005. Andy Dufresne Essay. “The Adult Learner of depression Color: An Overlooked College Student Population.” The Journal of Continuing Higher Education 53 (2): 2–11. Andy Redemption. Rumann, Corey B., and Florence A. Hamrick. 2010. “Student Veterans in Transition: Re-Enrolling after War Zone Deployments.” Journal of Higher Education 81: 431–458.
Wlodkowski, Raymond J. 2003. Recovery Depression. “Accelerated Learning in Colleges and Universities.” In “Accelerated Learning for Adults: The Promise and Practice of Intensive Educational Formats,” edited.by R. Dufresne Redemption. J. Wlodkowski and C. Kasworm, special issue, New Directions for recovery Adult and Continuing Education 97: 5–15. Essay. Wlodkowski, Raymond J., and depression, Carol. Thesis About Arthritis. E. Kasworm. 2003. “Accelerated Learning for Adults: The Promise and Practices of Intensive Educational Formats.” Special issue, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 97. Jovita M. Recovery Depression. Ross-Gordon is a professor in the department of leadership, counseling, adult education, and school psychology at thesis about, Texas State University; and coeditor-in-chief of the New Directions for Adult and recovery, Continuing Education sourcebook series.
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Recovery and Staying Well - Anxiety …
Property Loss Control Insurance Inspections Resume Sample. Derek Lynn RPIH MPM Ph.D. Tel: Cell or Business Phone A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. A position in depression SAP as a Project Manager Senior Functional Consultant HCM, Enterprise Portal, EHS, MM, IM,WM, SD, Claims Management, Reach Requirements, Substance Volume Control, GRC Compliance, Regulatory Compliance, and PLM EHS Recipe Management. or SAP Trainer HCM, QM, PP, PP-PI, PS, EHS, DMS, MM, WM, IM, PM, SD, SRM CRM, Security, Project team, Claims Management, Reach Requirements, Substance Volume Control, GRC Compliance, Regulatory Compliance, and PLM EHS Recipe Management. A· Certified Project Manager (12 years) A· Certified SAP EHS Consultant (16 years) A· Product Safety/Dangerous Goods/GLM/WWI, OH-IH, Waste Management, Reach Requirements, Claims Management and Recipe Management. A· SAP HR / HCM (13 years) A· Enterprise Portal, ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Time Management, Payroll, Compensation Management, SAP Training and Event Management; Travel Expense Management, Enterprise Compensation Management, LSO, Enterprise Portal, and Performance Management.
A· Worked on 10 new implementations of SAP EHS in SAP 3.1, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0. A· Worked on 11 upgrades ofA SAP EHS in andy dufresne essay SAP 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0. A· Worked on 5 new implementations of recovery depression, HR / HCM including Enterprise Portal in and child essays SAP 4.5 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0. A· Worked on 8 upgrades of HCM including Enterprise Portal in SAP 4.7, 5.0, 6.0. Project Management Details at depression, end of resume.A. Dynamic, Self-Motivated Professional with many years of livres, experience and recovery depression, continued success as a Senior SAP Consultant / Project Manager/Certified SAP TrainerA and Environmental Engineer, Quality Assurance management, SAP HCM-EHS Consultant, Security advisor, Regulatory Compliance, Software Implementation, Health Safety Director, Flight Instructor and Project Manager. American Project? Senior Functional SAP HCM, EHS Consultant for Product Safety/Dangerous Goods/GLM/WWI, OH-IH, Waste Management, Claims Management, Regulatory Compliance, Reach Compliance, Substance Volume Control, and Recipe Management including GRC compliance. SAP HCM ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Time Management, Payroll, Compensation Management, SAP Training and Event Management, SAP Travel Expense Management, Enterprise Compensation Management, Performance Management and recovery, Enterprise Learning. Use of LSMW and Ecatt for Legacy data. Essay System? SAP Trainer Consultant/ Development Designer in EHS, HCM , PP, PP-PI, APO, QM, DMS, MM, WM, PM, SD, CRM, PS, HCM Security, and recovery, using the RWD Info Pack, U-Perform, CBT, Captivate and Dreamweaver.
Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and veteran essay project, experienced with testing SAP HR End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of depression, Transaction Codes and Info types . Livres Et Resume? Experience with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and Loadrunner. Experience building test scripts Database testing experience with Client Server and Windows/Web testing Experience. Testing in large ERP systems. Experienced in recovery depression Implementing, Configuring and training in livres SAP HCM, EHS, MM, QM, PP, PP-PI, SD, WM, PM, FI-CO, PS, DG, GLM, OH-IH, DMS, HCM Security, Regulatory Compliance, GRC Compliance, Hazardous Materials, WWI and templates, Claims Management, Reach Regulations, and depression, Recipe Management using ASAP methodology. SAP HCM ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Time Management, SAP Training and Event Management, SAP Travel Expense Management, Enterprise Compensation Management, Compensation Management, Enterprise Learning (LSO) and and child labor, Performance Management. Recovery Depression? Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and experience with testing SAP HR End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of Transaction Codes and Info types. Experienced in training SAP Consultants for certification, train the trainer, power users and end users using a variety of training methods including creating training documentation online simulations and using the et resume, RWD Info Pack and U-Perform, Captivate, Flash Weaver, CBT. Safety and environmental feasibility studies, Human resources studies and blue printing, SAP quality training in inspection lots, returns, notifications, ud, mic, control keys, vendor etc, assessments and audits. Recovery Depression? Material Management, Production Planning, APO, Warehouse Management. Engineering, Product Safety/Dangerous Goods, GRC compliance, GLM, OSHA, EPA requirements, ISO 14001/9000/18000 audits, risk assessment, project safety development, FDA/GMP, MSDS authoring, global regulatory compliance. Uk Education System? SAP Project Manager, Consultant and user training for SAP Modules HCM, EHS APO, CRM, QM, PP, PP-PI, DMS, MM, WM, SD, PM, FI-CO, Claims Management and recovery depression, Recipe Management.
Worked in, Manufacturing, Refinery's, Aviation, Chemical, industries, Manufacturing, safety management, program design/implementation, quality assurance, remediation systems, fire safety, hazardous materials/waste, environmental and regulatory compliance, OSHA, EPA, FDA DOT, RCRA, CERCLA, TA, CAA,SARA,CWA, HAPS and Air Permit. Uk Education? Environmental impact and feasibility studies waste management, risk assessment, project development, and quality management. Regulatory and compliance updates. Human resources studies and recovery depression, blue printing and configuration for SAP HCM ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Time Management, Payroll, SAP Training and arthritis, Event Management, SAP Travel Expense Management Compensation Management Performance Management, Payroll, and Time Management. Recent Development of recovery, end-user training for essay, the SAP FI-CO module.
Highly Skilled in Business, Quality, Human Resources and recovery depression, Environmental Business process, Quality Assurance Assessments, Inspections, Risk Assessments, MSDS authoring, Global regulatory compliance and research and updates, safety/security audits, GRC compliance, strategic planning, budgeting, project/work scheduling, SAP HCM, EHS,QM,DMS,WM MM,SD, CRM, PP, PP-PI, APO, PM, implementation and trainingA 3.0, 4.0,4.5,4.6,4.7,5.0,6.0, SAP Training, design administration, data analysis, client relations, problem resolution, and staff supervision/training. Excellent interpersonal/communication, management and leadership skills. Demonstrated ability to develop, build, and maintain critical relationships involving clear communication, persuasion and diplomacy. Quick study with an essay, ability to easily grasp new ideas, concepts, methods and technologies. Thrive in both independent and collaborative work environments. Energetic and self-motivated team player. Recovery? At ease in et resume high stress and depression, fast-paced environments requiring the ability to effectively handle senior level responsibilities. Canterbury University, UK. Ph.D., Environmental Studies 2004. Canterbury University, UKA A A. M.S., Information Technology 2000.
City of thesis about arthritis, Guilds London Institute, BS Mech Eng 1966A. Professional Environmental Waste Management 1994. Certified MPM, SAP HCM Certified SAP EHS Consultant, SAP Certified Trainer, Certified Microsoft CRM 4.0, CCNP, CCSA, CCSE, CCDP, MCSE, MCSA, CCA, CWI SPA, IWA SP, MCP, SAP EHS 1.4I, 2.2/2.5/ 2.7, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2 PS, DG, GLM, OH-IH, Hazardous Materials, Waste Management, WWI.A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. SAP Training: Certified MPM, SAP EHS Consultant, SAP Certified Trainer, CCNP, CCSA, CCSE, CCDP, MCSE, MCSA, CCA, CWI SPA, IWA SP, MCP, SAP EHS 1.4I, 2.2/2.5/ 2.7, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2 PS, DG, GLM, OH-IH, WWI.A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. SAP Training: HCM, PP, PP-PI, APO, CRM, EHS, QM, DMS, MM, WM, PM, SD, FI-CO, PS. Professional Memberships / Certifications: American Academy of depression, Project Management. International Webmasters Association. International Security Association. Association of Mechanical Independent Engineers-London.
American Industrial Hygienist Association. American Society of Testing Materials. American Welding Society. World Safety Organization. Environmental Assessment Association. Association of Mechanical Independent Engineers-London. American Industrial Hygienist Association.
*A A A Master Project Manager. *A A A Registered Professional Industrial Hygienist. *A A A Certified Human Resources. *A A A Approved OSHA instructor. *A A A Certified EPA instructor. *A A A Certified Safety Executive (World Safety Organization) *A A A Certified Weld Inspector (American Welding Society) Licensed Asbestos/Lead Inspector. *A A A Structural/Environmental Team Leader (FEMA) *A A A Licensed Project Manager. *A A A Radiation Safety Officer (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) *A A A Licensed Air Sampling Professional. *A A A Licensed Safety Engineer. *A A A Certified Environmental Inspector.
*A A A Certified Environmental Systems. September 16 th 2009 -Present, Senior SAP Shared Service's Training and Configuration Manager HCM Enterprise Portal FI-C0 MM IM SD SRM. State of South Carolina. Responsible for the overseeing and Project Management of all SAP training for andy essay, Tier 1 and 2 SAP service support technicians, to facilitate SAP customer support for recovery depression, the State of South Carolina for 80 statewide organizations including users. Et Resume? Includes responding to recovery depression, problems and escalation when needed, and advising senior management of risk to production and business. Supporting SAP Modules FI-CO MM IM SRM Vendor Procurement HCM. Enterprise Portal using ESS for Time Management, Payroll, Leave, Absences, Travel Expenses, Personal Information, Banking, Who's Who. MSS for approving time, leave, control of hydrogen essay, organization and SRM. November 3 rd 2008- September 1O th 2009 Senior SAP Operations Director HCM EHS PP MM.
Overseeing a major SAP project at Letterkenny, Corpus Christy and recovery, Tobyhanna Army Service Depots LMP Logistics Project PP MM WM IM SRM includes SAP Configuration Support and Managing Training of a team of livres et resume, 260 Logistic personnel. June 23 rd 2008-November 1 st 2008 Lead /PM on HCM, HCM Security and EHS Implementation and Global Production support and training. New implementation of ECC 6.O SP2 for recovery depression, SAP EHS, PS, OH-IH, HCM ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Compensation Management, SAP Training and Event Management, Enterprise Learning , SAP Travel Expense Management, Enterprise Compensation Management, Enterprise Portal using ESS for Training, Time Management, Payroll, Leave, Absences, Travel Expenses, Personal Information, Banking, Who's Who. MSS for hydrogen essay, approving time, leave, control of organization and SRM. Performance Management, Payroll, Time Management and HCM EHS module for recovery, GRC, HCM and EHS security design roles and interfacing with FICO for payroll run. This includes Blueprinting, configuration and testing taking legacy data from livres et resume, Lockheed Martin and importing into database using LSMW and sometimes Ecatt. Responsible for recovery, nine consultants and managing budget. Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and experience with testing SAP HCM End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of Transaction Codes and andy dufresne redemption essay, Info types.
Required to train Managers, Super Users and Users. Full global support for go live. Testing with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and recovery, Loadrunner. Livres Et Resume? Building test scripts for Database Client Server. June 23 rd 2007 June 18 th 2008 A Senior Instructional Systems SME Manager Expert and Designer Process Lead/PM , MARS (Master Foods), Mt. Olive NJ. Responsible and manage the recovery, instructional design team for developing and american project, delivering global training for SAP HCM, APO, CRM, PP-PI, SRM, MM, IM, WM, FI-CO, Procurement and all interfaces for SAP 4.7 enterprise.
Liaise with Mars business team as SME to design Business. Processes and map transactions to design train the recovery depression, trainer and key user and end user global training in all SAP modules. Hydrogen Essay? All instructional design development work carried out in Info-Pak 5.4. Used Microsoft Project Manager. Managed offshore resources for client. Depression? Building Training server importing training data using LSMW, and verifying training scripts and data.
Testing with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and Loadrunner. Building Data for Database Training Client Server. Setting up PMO office. May 24 th 2007- June 30 th TREMCO, Canada OHIO. Senior SAP HCM, EHS Configuration/Training Expert Consultant.
SAP EHS quality assurance and correct errors in livres configuration and document for a full upgrade implementation of SAP EHS PS-DG module for ECC 6.0 from 4.6C. Recovery Depression? Training of key users and end users and about, administration of SAP EHS to include GRC, QM, SD, IM, HCM and recovery depression, MM.A Ongoing consultancy services with Tremco's USA and Canada I and EHS departments. Jan 2007-June 9th New York Power Authority, White Plains NY. Senior Implementation Project Manager and Trainer HCM, EHS. Full Implementation of thesis arthritis, SAP EHS OH / IH, HCM PA-OM module and PS Claims Management module, HCM, EHS Security design, for Enterprise ECC 6.0 for the Utility Company New York Power Authority. Configured the recovery, EHS module for project, PS and depression, IH-OH and developed training for managers, key users and end users. Compile and arthritis, advise the business process, planning, blue print, documentation configuration, design and recovery, test. Record Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and experience with testing SAP HCM End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of essay, Transaction Codes and recovery depression, Info types. Project tracking using enterprise project management. Managing client's in-house implementation team. Veteran Essay Project? Setting up PMO office testing with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and Loadrunner.
Building test scripts and recovery depression, imported using LSMW for american veteran essay, Database Client Server. Jan 2006 - Jan 2007A A Nalco Chemical, Chicago. Senior Functional Implementation Consultant Project Manager and Trainer Manager for Global Customer Production support. Full global customer user training support setup and configuration for depression, EHS, HCM, HCM Module Security Design, other modules implemented include, PP, PP-PI,A QM,DMS,MM,WM, PS Claims Management, Reach Requirements, andA RecipeA Management modules includes PS, DG, GLM and WWI.EHS Business process design. SAP 4.6c, upgrading to shawshank essay, 6.0.
Working with Technidata in partnership support and SME. Managed offshore resources for client including setting up security. Setting up PMO office. Recovery Depression? Recording Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and redemption, experience with testing SAP Modules End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of Transaction Codes and Info types. Testing with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and Loadrunner. Building test scripts for Database Client Server. Managed the recovery, implementation development and all Train the Trainer and user training for SAP Modules, QM, PP, PP-PI, APO, CRM, QM, DMS, HCM, MM, WM, PM, SD as a SAP Certified Trainer. Essay Project? Configured SAP EHS to include GRC best business practices, HCM ESS-MSS, PA-OM, Time Management, Payroll, SAP Training and Event Management, SAP Travel Expense Management Compensation Management and Performance Management.
Managing trouble tickets, change requests and recovery depression, work flow under the Service Level Agreement (SLA).Single point contact from offshore to the customer at onsite for resolving issues within stiff deadline. Give the functional and technical support to andy dufresne shawshank essay, solve the depression, trouble tickets and change requests. Worked on supporting Tools like Remedy, Test Director, Documented and my Elvis for american veteran essay project, giving offshore support.SAP Workplace was implemented at client and gave the best support in recovery solving client requirement. Requested to veteran project, develop and manage FI-CO training for key users and end users. Recovery Depression? For SAP FI-CO module for ERP SAP 6.0 ECC to include New GL. April 2003 - Jan 2006A A A Ariel Research Corporation, Tyson's VA. SAP Senior Project Manager, Implementation/Configuration Manager/Trainer. HCM ,EHS PS, DG, GLM, WWI, DMS, HCM Specialist and Security advisor and client SAP user trainer.
Project Manger EHS SAP 4.6/4.7 Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and experience with testing SAP HR End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of Transaction Codes and hydrogen essay, Info types. Testing with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and Loadrunner. Building test scripts for Database Client Server. SAP EHS Product Safety/Dangerous Goods, SAP EHS version 2.7 3.1 3.2 program in 4.6/4.7. Working closely with SAP AG and Technidata to include GRC best business practices. Implementing Prosteward EHS and SAP EHS databases for large Petrochemical companies and many other industries, designing MSDS and training end users in SAP Modules. Training clients and, plan, prepare, test and configure SAP EHS Third party software for recovery depression, Product Safety, Dangerous Goods, for a variety of clients in uk education USA and Internationally.
Communicate implementation plans to recovery, server administrators at client sites and uk education system, train consultant's end users on depression SAP modules after and during implementation of modules. Facilitate good database training design and access techniques for power users and regular users. Veteran Project? Use OSS notes for recovery, technical updates and patches. Utilized skills for MSDS Authoring and regulatory compliance and hydrogen essay, research updates for Product Safety Dangerous Goods at client's sites. Recovery Depression? Designed and developed to client's needs in house training and andy, configuration for HCM, EHS, MM WM, SD, and PM.
Security. SAP module training for recovery, consultants all end users and full after sales technical support. Nike Labor Essays? Worked closely with Technidata and recovery, SAP on re-engineering design and upgrade for american essay, product safety and dangerous goods regulatory data load support, for recovery, software 2.5, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2 staging area and various other modules. Projects: Exxon Mobil ( HR, QM EHS configuration/training), Shell (EHS configuration), Chevron ( EHS training), Degussa Chemical (EHS configuration/Training) , Degussa Construction (EHS training), Dow Chemical (EHS,MM SD configuration/Training), Airbus (EHS configuration/Training), BASF (EHS configuration/Training) , Henkel (EHS configuration/Training) , British Airways, Poly One, Nalco, Ashland, Tremco, Champion Technologies, Suncor Energy (MM EHS Training), Benjamin Moore, Kodak, Sasol ( HR, EHS Training), Baron Services (HR,QM MM PP Training). A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. July 1999 - April 2003A A A Technical International, Inc., Frankfurt Germany. SAP Senior Functional Consultant-Training Manager EHS/WM/MM/QM/PP/HR. Quality Management Instructor (SAP Academy, Frankfurt Germany.) Instructor for two-week SAP QM Certification Course. Senior Project Manager for nike labor, training and configuration of HR, QM MM, WM, PP.
EHS SAP Module Create strategies to recovery depression, ensure regulatory compliance, facilitate accountability and effective implementation of a practical SAP EHS 2.7 program in 4.6c. Setting up PMO office. Recording Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and experience with testing SAP HR End-To-End Processes, along with a good understanding of Transaction Codes and livres, Infotypes. Develop and recovery, create documents in hydrogen essay EHS module Product Safety, Dangerous Goods, MSDS, SOPs, Accident Reports, Injury Illness logs, Health centers, medical centers, questionnaires, Risk Assessments and Safety Inspections. WWI integration generating, sending and managing reports using the functions available in Product Safety. Liaise with HR in recovery depression the use of HR Master, Application Master Time Management, Payroll, ESS-MSS, and labor essays, PA-OM. Depression? Configure training database design and essay, access techniques for recovery depression, EHS, HR, PP, WM, and QM.MM.
Design training programs for train the american veteran, trainer and recovery, conduct SAP educational classes for power users and new users on nike labor essays SAP HR, QM, PP, EHS, MM, and recovery depression, WM. BASF ========Germany=======EHS-HR Configuration 4.6-4.7 and Training. Henkel======= Germany======= EHS-HR Configuration 4.6 4.7 and Training. SASREF ====== Saudi Arabia====QM PP-PI MM HR Trainer A A 4.6 4.7A A A. Procter Gamble= Singapore====== QM PP-PI MM WM HR Trainer 4.6A A A A. Vantico Polymers= Singapore====== QM MM PP-PI Trainer 4.6. Tamimi Foods=== Saudi Arabia==== HR QM MM PP-PI WM Trainer 4.6. Rohm and Haas== USA========== EHS-HR Configuration and arthritis, Training 4.6 4.7.
Tech Services, Inc., St. Recovery Depression? Louis, MO. Senior Functional/Trainer Consultant. EHS, HR PP, PP-PI, QM, DMS, MM, WM, PM, SD. Senior Technical/Functional EHS, HR, PP, PP-PI, QM, DMS, MM, WM, SDA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. Senior Consultant, Training and development. Hydrogen Essay? A. Assistant Project Manager for recovery depression, full SAP EHS 2.2/2.5 implementation A. 3/4.0/4.5/4.6.Conducted SAP EHS,HR, PP, PP-PI,QM,DMS,MM,WM,PM,SD, business assessment studies and blue printing to about, determine most effective technologies for recovery, each site with clients using SAP ASAP methodology. Configure SAP EHS Product Safety and thesis about, Dangerous Goods OH-IH, PP, PP-PI, PM, QM, DMS, IM, MM, WM, SD, FI-CO, and depression, HR. Train end users and managers for all modules.
August1996 - August1997A A A (Independent Consultant) Plaut ConsultingA St Louis, MOA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. SAP QM-MM module Consultant /Trainer. SAP R/3 Quality Management and andy shawshank redemption, Material Management Lead - Responsible for recovery, implementing the Quality Management module SAP R/3 Materials Management Consultant. Responsible for Batch Management and Inventory Control.A Key items: Batch Determination during shipping, multiple plants, consumption based planning, MRP and physical inventory. March 1995- August1996A A A A. Tech Services, Inc., St.
Louis, MO. Senior Technical/Trainer Consultant. Project team member for full beta installation and implementation of SAP EHS 1.4i product safety. Also worked closely on SAP EHS beta system 1.4i with SAP on dufresne shawshank the first implementation of recovery, SAP EHS at Joy Mining Company PA.A Instituted training programs to american essay, ensure all consultants/developers complied with company and database SAP solution and methodology policies for recovery depression, Product Safety, Dangerous Goods producing MSDS reports for global government regulations Product Safety and Dangerous Goods and training in the use of nike essays, EHS database. Planned and administered scope of recovery depression, work and project schedule on a team basis, reviewed all project reports for content/clarity, and communicated with clients to about arthritis, ensure complete satisfaction with project outcome. Consulted for various clients in recovery EHS and Basis / Security administration. System? Implemented database audit /security protocol, policy and troubleshooting databases.
Feb 1990 March 1995A A A A. SGS Control Services, Inc. Houston, TX. Vendor Quality Control /Assurance / Senior Surveillance Engineering/Safety Inspector. Initiated company health/safety plans to ISO 14000 and provided quality assurance for all fabrication/welding projects produced to meet clients engineering designs and depression, ISO 9000/01. PSM implemented on and child essays all projects. Oversee the fabrication and depression, safety on hydrogen essay all manufactured chemical/oil/gas vessels for offshore and refineries. Consulted with manufacturer's oil/ gas/ electric/ chemical and clients to determine scope of work; EHS policy, monitored and notified client of recovery, work progress; prepared and american essay project, furnished client with all final documentation and recovery, completion certificates. Read and interpreted blue prints, engineering and nike and child labor essays, welding plans for specific contracts; enforced all regulatory/safety codes for recovery depression, heat exchangers, de-aerators, chemical castings, and pumps P1 through P3 /ASME/AWS D1.1 and ANSI standards. Projects include: Shell Oil (QM), BP (QM), ESSO (QM), Exxon (QM), Korean Castings (QM), Indonesia Oil (QM), and essay uk education system, BP Chemical refineries (QM),
Heli Operations Corp Oil/Gas Exploration North Sea. Corporate Flight Safety Director. May 1984 - Jan 1990. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Responsible for all Helicopter safety operations land and sea, Occupational/Environmental/ HR/WM/MM and health and safety training of depression, pilots site safety personnel, employees, contractors on company property and livres, off shore rig projects. Recovery Depression? Set up health and safety training programs for drilling offshore and american veteran project, land using helicopters. Depression? Managed the hydrogen essay, flight safety regulations for recovery depression, all helicopter operations on oil/gas rigs. Audited all Heli Corp facilities on american veteran project a regular basis. Conducted safety orientation SHE principles and familiarization for recovery, all newly hired associates as appropriate on system a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis and introducing flight safety methods.
Project Flight Manager for emergency hazardous clean up operations, complete site characterizations, risk assessment, planning O M programs at refineries and offshore. Set up projects to limit waste production and more effectual use of depression, raw material for projects. Insured compliance to hydrogen essay, company health and safety policy of all management/supervisors, employees and contractors using on site safety personnel. Utilized safety training programs, industrial hygiene standards, education exercises, and recovery depression, reviewed safe handling procedures and response techniques for and child labor essays, all hazardous material handling and fire safety procedures during helicopter operations. Produced company health and recovery, safety compliance by site auditing and quality assurance as required per project. Reported directly to the Vice President of livres et resume, Operations and recovery depression, liaised with appropriate regulatory bodies to insure company compliance. Developed a variety of nike and child, teaching programs, report formats and recovery depression, procedures for flight safety, Air Survival School, occupational health and hydrogen essay, safety, environmental, engineering, fire safety, and recovery depression, emergency response and livres, remediation projects. Set up a quality assurance program for cost effectiveness of air operations. Set up health and safety flight site-specific work plans and SOPS for off shore drilling rig projects both for gas/oil and refineries. Maintain Workers Compensation Program. Responsible for depression, Workers Compensation Claim Management of all work related injuries.
Oversees return to work program for all project locations. Regularly followed up with associates off due to about arthritis, workers compensation injuries and communicated MPTE interest in their well- being and prompt return to work. Liaised with clinics, attorneys and third party administrators . Recovery? Represented company at Industrial Tribunal hearings and compiled facts and findings for american veteran essay, same. Kept apprised of developments in federal and depression, state safety initiatives, communicated those developments to et resume, management and recovery depression, associates. And Child? Prepared monthly safety report, files and records for all Heli Corp sites. Escorted representatives from recovery depression, agencies during safety, fire, and security audits and andy dufresne shawshank redemption, inspections of depression, landing sites offshore and refinery sites. Prepared required compliance reports for hydrogen essay, federal and state agencies and corporate insurance and recovery depression, risk flight management purposes. July1966-August1984 (regular)A A (1984-1987 VR)
Pilot- Avro Vulcan. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A. PROJECT MANAGER DETAILS. Professional experience related to project. I am certified as an MPM. A. Several years experience participating in helping clients during software selection and RFP responses. Et Resume? Assisting clients in business processes, implementation, business process reengineering, business requirements, and integration. Managing RFP Vendors, validating client's requirements against depression, Vendor's RFP responses. Nike Labor Essays? A. I have 11 years SAP Project Management experience and depression, 16 years on SAP EHS, and 13 years on arthritis HR, HCM, Enterprise Portal and recovery depression, 8 years on essay uk education Security and Testing, utilizing project, strategies, and recovery, business analysis, enabling benchmarking, and business needs . Essay Uk Education? Security includes, HCM, Enterprise portal, HCM Roles, HCM Key authorization objects, GRC compliance, Authorizations SIG Structural Authorizations the recovery depression, Context Solution, Sarbanes Oxley, AIS Audit, EHS and HR Master Data. SAP Testing using QTP 9.0, SILKTEST 6.5, TESTDIRECTOR 8.0 SP2 ENTERPRISE, SITE OPE 8.0, WINRUNNER, and and child, LOADRUNNER, and Quality Center, SharePoint.
Managing trouble tickets, change requests and work flow under the recovery, Service Level Agreement (SLA).Single point contact from offshore to essay uk education, the customer at recovery, onsite for resolving issues within stiff deadline. Give the functional and technical support to essay, solve the trouble tickets and change requests. Worked on supporting Tools like Remedy, Test Director, Documented and my Elvis for depression, giving offshore support.SAP Workplace was implemented at client and gave the andy dufresne redemption, best support in depression solving client requirement.A. Industry expertise around SAP HR-HCM (Human Capital Management), EHS Model Planning, Testing and Security Data expertise in shawshank essay Manufacturing, Aerospace, Chemicals and Oil Gas. Using SAP Best PracticesA.
In-depth knowledge and recovery depression, experience with HCM and dufresne redemption essay, EHS business processes, industry best practices and measurements. Recovery Depression? My HCM and EHS background consists of: all module Configuration, Regulatory Compliance,A Documentation, Testing, Security, and Implementation experience R2 -3.0 R3-4.0 4.5 4.6A Enterprise Systems 4.7,A ECC 5.0 6.0A. Extensive background on working with different Software and hardware vendors and validating the essay system, sizing and hardware requirements for the end customer.A. Industry specific SAP experience around Master Data, Testing, Security, ECC 6.0 Upgrade/Cutover Planning: Project Systems (PS), ECC 5.0 6.0, SAP BPC Business Planning Consolidation (Planning, Budgeting, Forecasting, Reporting/Analysis, Consolidations) / Outlook Soft, Personnel Administration, Organizational Management, ESS-MSS, Performance Management, Compensation Management, Training and recovery depression, Event Management, Payroll, Time Management. Travel and Expense Management, HR, EHS,A Material Management (MM), Customer Master, Vendor Master, Warehouse Management (WM), Sales and Distribution (SD), SAP Migration/Cutover Planning, Functional Testing, Integration Testing, System Testing, Regression Testing, Positive Negative Testing, User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and hydrogen essay, experienced with testing SAP HR End-To-End Processes and EHS, along with a good understanding of recovery depression, Transaction Codes and Info types . Experience with Mercury Quality Center, Quick Test Professional (QTP), and andy dufresne shawshank redemption essay, Loadrunner. Experience building test scripts Database testing experience. Experience with Client Server and Windows/Web testing Experience, testing in large ERP systems. Experience managing technical and functional resources. Recovery? Expert on SDLC processes and procedures. Enjoy working in a team to hydrogen essay, assist goals, project direction, collaboration, problem solving, and project issues.A.
Managing vendor relationships between implementation projects for clientsA. proven track record of consistently hitting target deadlinesA. Strong Project Planning and Estimating Skills.A. Excellent verbal and written communication skills in recovery order to hydrogen essay, facilitate business andA A technical discussions and document solutions.
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Recovery Steps - Depression and …
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Recovery Steps - Depression and …
essays history film Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the recovery, latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to veteran essay, be old maybe because they saw it when they were in depression their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is livres et resume, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Recovery Depression! Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.
Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Thesis Arthritis! Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Recovery Depression! Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to livres, our current habits of thought. They force us to depression, acknowledge that films can be radically different from hydrogen essay what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for recovery depression, granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.
By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and livres et resume, audiences responded to their moment in history. Depression! By searching for social and nike and child, cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the recovery, societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to andy dufresne shawshank redemption essay, our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. Depression! As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline.
Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Nike! Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the depression, past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for andy essay, fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the depression, late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in essay uk education 2003, and depression, the third will be published in spring of hydrogen essay, 2009. In this book we have tried to recovery, introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. And Child Labor! But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.
We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of recovery depression, filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is nike essays, no film history, only depression film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. Uk Education! The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and recovery depression, with different interests and andy dufresne redemption, purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for recovery depression, all events, causes, and consequences. And the thesis, variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. Recovery! When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of thesis about, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do?
While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to recovery, determine which one can be considered the thesis about arthritis, original.
Other scholars are studying a group of recovery, films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and andy redemption, freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of recovery depression, cinema. Hydrogen Essay! Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about recovery, their passion as an end in itself.
But whatever the labor, pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in depression the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is uk education, unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. Depression! The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of nike essays, questions: What is the date of production or of recovery depression, release?
In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the and child labor essays, film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by depression, a distributor. Thesis About! It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself.
The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the recovery, film is american veteran project, Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps.
The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on recovery, certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation.
An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in project various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and depression, sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in thesis arthritis fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions.
One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and depression, market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the about, director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the recovery, focus of the other historian’s inquiry. Uk Education System! In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the depression, company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information.
The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of et resume, production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and depression, how directors direct, to hydrogen essay, guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. Recovery Depression! No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only hydrogen essay as part of research programs. Depression! Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to thesis about, prod her to ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and recovery depression, then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an andy shawshank redemption itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the recovery depression, “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of nike, research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1.
Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on depression, asking new questions than on unearthing new data.
Sometimes the et resume, research question seems to depression, have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to american, invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and recovery, was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and system, investing in sound films was part of recovery, a carefully planned strategy for livres, breaking into the ranks of the major studios.
4. Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the recovery, historian tries to livres, describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. Recovery! What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of dufresne shawshank redemption essay, others? What was the recovery depression, vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is veteran essay project, there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?
Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Recovery Depression! Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to livres, do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the recovery depression, vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an american essay explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on depression, an examination of evidence in light of veteran project, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the recovery, essay or book is essay uk education system, not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence.
Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the recovery, historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Essay Uk Education! For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial.
Although the cinema is recovery depression, a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Shawshank Essay! Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and recovery, sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon nike and child labor essays, which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of recovery depression, films, warehouse fires, and hydrogen essay, the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. Recovery! In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the livres et resume, most important figures. According to depression, rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.
Many of these are still sitting in hydrogen essay vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of recovery depression, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Livres Et Resume! Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and recovery depression, promote others. Finding reliable copies to hydrogen essay, study is recovery depression, a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.
Historians of essay uk education, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. Recovery Depression! A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Veteran! Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and depression, the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions.
In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in arthritis the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Recovery! Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version.
Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of american essay project, questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by depression, another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the hydrogen essay, researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the recovery depression, critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches.
There are distinct types of thesis, explanation in film history. Recovery! A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on nike and child labor, an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on depression, business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an andy redemption interest in one of these areas, which helps him to recovery, formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Essay! Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the recovery depression, question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the hydrogen essay, film was made. Depression! A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context.
We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in labor essays terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the depression, Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of about, descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on recovery depression, early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the andy redemption, sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the recovery depression, film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them.
Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and essay project, descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to depression, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of hydrogen essay, high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect.
Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and depression, desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. Andy Dufresne Shawshank Essay! It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to recovery, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation.
Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is thesis arthritis, usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only recovery depression individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the essay, power to recovery, create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is dufresne shawshank essay, applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for recovery depression, example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in andy dufresne shawshank essay the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of depression, films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to thesis about, a new level of expression. Recovery! Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by hydrogen essay, others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on recovery depression, standard editing practice. Livres! As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of recovery, existence over and above the individuals who compose it.
Groups have rules and american essay, roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the recovery, beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. Andy Dufresne Shawshank Redemption Essay! This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of depression, groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of essay uk education, filmmakers. Depression! These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of shawshank, filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and recovery depression, style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the essay, 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.
Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to depression, a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and nike essays, French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to depression, a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in et resume the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Depression! Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director.
Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by essay system, a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is depression, often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. Thesis Arthritis! The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the recovery depression, directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the labor essays, same films.
Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and recovery, group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Thesis Arthritis! Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into recovery depression a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material.
For one thing, the hydrogen essay, historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the recovery depression, tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is hydrogen essay, pursuing. One principal way historians go about depression, such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the uk education system, most part,” we can identify a general tendency.
Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of depression, color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is essay, necessarily pitched at recovery depression, a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on essay, than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the recovery depression, historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of hydrogen essay, time.
She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the recovery, 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is et resume, creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to recovery, the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in veteran neat order. It is illuminating to depression, think of the uk education, American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in recovery the 1970s and afterward. Histories of andy redemption essay, genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods.
Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in recovery depression step with political or social history. Hydrogen Essay! The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in recovery depression film form or the american project, film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in recovery the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history.
Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the thesis, following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by recovery depression, artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.
They stand in for essay, many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical.
Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of recovery depression, world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the et resume, history of recovery depression, world cinema? That would give us no help in hydrogen essay setting about our research and depression, organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the veteran project, medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.
The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the recovery depression, medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the shawshank redemption essay, musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to recovery, survey the uses of the medium in different times and places.
Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of nike labor, form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in recovery depression which firms are organized in livres order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in depression many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products.
An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to uk education system, be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in recovery which films are exhibited have also affected film history. About Arthritis! For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to recovery depression, do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in et resume the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to depression, balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and thesis, cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by recovery, directors and livres et resume, films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.
Just as important, the film industry itself is recovery, significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and thesis about, regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. Recovery Depression! For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for et resume, instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and depression, “young cinemas” arise in american essay project Europe, the recovery depression, Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s?
Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of american veteran, subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and recovery depression, social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. And Child Labor! It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of depression, a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the veteran essay, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology.
For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the recovery, conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at dufresne redemption, once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the depression, film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and veteran, social/cultural/political factors. Recovery! In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and thesis about arthritis, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the recovery, growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. Et Resume! films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in recovery depression turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and american, the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to recovery, writing only a certain kind of hydrogen essay, history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is recovery depression, Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in et resume 1915, directed by depression, Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.
Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an and child labor essays example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. Recovery Depression! might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is project, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the depression, form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to livres et resume, answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over depression time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the livres, question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story.
As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Recovery! Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to arthritis, the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and recovery depression, style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Livres! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.
If you were writing a book-length history of depression, Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to about arthritis, social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of depression, Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and american veteran essay project, come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. Depression! In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.
5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and thesis about, Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of recovery depression, moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for essay uk education, his German films makes him hard to recovery depression, pin down. But why is livres et resume, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the recovery, sound period, most notably Trouble in labor essays Paradise (1932) and recovery, The Shop around the veteran project, Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is depression, Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about andy dufresne, Lubitsch. I had been struck by recovery, how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director.
After he moved to veteran project, Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in recovery both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the hydrogen essay, cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the depression, influence might move in the opposite hydrogen essay, direction, from recovery depression Hollywood to Germany.
A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. Shawshank Redemption Essay! I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from recovery 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage.
The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for about arthritis, my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and recovery, Italian cinema. Hydrogen Essay! American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally.
The war had, ironically, strengthened the recovery, German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Nike Labor Essays! Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the recovery depression, finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the and child essays, same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to depression, tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally.
The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on essay, glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. Recovery Depression! His German films of nike and child essays, 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of depression, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).
For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to thesis, lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the depression, front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against essay project the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films?
What impact did the recovery depression, new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and project, with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and recovery depression, gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by dufresne redemption essay, other directors, also collecting images for depression, illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for livres, I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the recovery, director’s working methods. Legal papers in labor the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and recovery depression, what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.
I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the andy shawshank redemption essay, influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the depression, chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Et Resume! Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and depression, discussed the industrial and social conditions in andy dufresne shawshank redemption Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences.
The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in depression the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. Nike And Child Essays! I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Depression! Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of uk education, Hollywood film on depression, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. Livres! These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years.
Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from recovery specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the et resume, 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for recovery depression, a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in hydrogen essay each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available.
The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on recovery depression, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is veteran essay, available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is recovery depression, part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and essay system, I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.
The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on recovery depression, film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the livres et resume, context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Recovery! Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by hydrogen essay, thinking historically. What happens today springs from recovery depression what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7.
4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. Hydrogen Essay! See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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